讲述翻 译大师学习翻译的心路历程

«   有胡不与之国何有于我哉 »

hands and hair

  [00:29.60]Unit 1 Text A What Is a Decision?


  [00:35.84]A decision is a choice

  [00:40.28]made from among alternative courses of action that are available.

  [00:43.66]决策即 是从几种可行的行为中做出选择.

  [00:47.05]The purpose of makinga decision

  [00:51.10]is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives.

  [00:54.82]决策的 目的是为了建立和达到组织的目标.

  [00:58.54]The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists,

  [01:01.56]决策的 原因是存在着问题,

  [01:04.57]goals or objectives are wrong


  [01:09.41]or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.

  [01:12.03]或有某 种东西妨碍着它的实现.

  [01:14.66]Thus the decision-making process is fundamental to management.

  [01:18.38] 因此决 策的过程对于管理是必不可和的.

  [01:22.10]almost everything a manager does involves decisions,

  [01:25.63]几乎管 理者所做的所有事情都涉及到决策.

  [01:29.16]indeed,some suggest that the management process is decisions making.

  [01:33.09]确实,有人认 为管理过程就是决策过程.

  [01:37.02]Although managers cannot predict the future,

  [01:40.05]虽然管 理者不能预测未来,

  [01:43.08]many of their decisions require that they condider possible future events.

  [01:47.05]但他们 的许多决策还是要求他们考虑到未来可能发生的事情.

  [01:51.02]Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be

  [01:54.76]通常管 理者必须对未来的情况做出最佳预测,

  [01:58.49]and try to leave as little as possible to chance,

  [02:01.42]从而使 偶然性尽可能少地发生.

  [02:04.34]but since uncrtainty is always there,risk accompanies decisions.

  [02:08.27]但因为 总存在着不确定性,所以风 险常伴随着决策.

  [02:12.21]Sometimes the consequences of a poor decision are slight;

  [02:15.47]有时候 不明知的决策的结果没什么大不了的,

  [02:18.74]at other times they are serious.


  [02:23.31] Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives.

  [02:26.69] 选择就 是从可供选择的事物中进行选择的机会.

  [02:30.07]If there is no choice,there is no decision to be made.


  [02:36.42]Decision making is the process of choosing,


  [02:42.95]and many decisions have a broad range of choice.

  [02:46.03]许多决 策有很广的可选范围.

  [02:49.12]For example,


  [02:52.64]a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses

  [02:55.97]例如:为了完 成得到大学学位的决策,

  [02:59.30]in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree.

  [03:02.44]一个学 生可以从许多不同的课程中选择.

  [03:05.57]For managers,every decision has constraints based on policies,


  [03:13.23]procedures,laws,precedents,and the like.


  [03:19.39]These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.

  [03:22.51]这些制 约存在于各级组织中.

  [03:25.64]Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made.

  [03:29.61] 供选择 的事物是指可供从中选择的可能的行为过程.

  [03:33.58]If there are no alternatives,there is no choice and,therefore,no decision.

  [03:37.55]如果没 有供选择的事物,就不能做出选择,因此,就没有决策.

  [03:41.52]If no alternatives are seen,

  [03:43.56]如果找 不到可供选择的事物,

  [03:45.59]often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done.

  [03:49.22]通常意 味着对这个问题还没有做彻底的审查.

  [03:52.86]For example,managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion;

  [03:56.83]例如:管理者 有时用二者择一的方式来处理问题,

  [04:00.80]this is their way of simplifying complex problems.

  [04:03.44]这是他 们简化复杂问题的方式.

  [04:06.07]But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.

  [04:09.65]但这种 简化的倾向使得他们看不到其他可供选择的办法.

  [04:13.23]At the managerial level,

  [04:15.11] 在管理级别上,

  [04:16.99]decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them,

  [04:21.02]决策包 括限定并确定可选择的事物,

  [04:25.04]and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.

  [04:28.53]其范围 从极其有限到实际上无限多. [04:32.01] Decision makers must have some way of determining

  [04:34.94]决策者 必须有办法决定

  [04:37.86]which of several alternatives is best,

  [04:40.24]在若干 种可供选择的事物中哪能种是最优的,

  [04:42.62]that is which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals.

  [04:46.64]也就是 哪种最有助于完成组织目标.

  [04:50.66]An organizational goal

  [04:54.50]is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach.

  [04:57.98]组织目 标是组织所追求达到的事件的结束或状态.

  [05:01.45]Because individuals(and organizations)frequently have different ideas about

  [05:08.61]how to attain the goals,

  [05:10.65]因为个体(和组织)关于如 何达到目的常有不同的观点,

  [05:12.69]the best choice may depend on who makes the decision[05:15.66]哪能种 是最优的选择可能要看是谁做出决策.

  [05:18.64]Frequently,departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually

  [05:23.11]通常,一个组 织中的各部门或单位做出的决策对他们个体来说是有益的,

  [05:27.58]but that are less than optimal for the larger organization.

  [05:30.45]但对更 大的组织来说则不是最理想的.

  [05:33.32]Called suboptimization,


  [05:37.48]this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function

  [05:41.45]这种权 衡增加了对一个单位或一项职能的好处,

  [05:45.42]but decreases the advantages to another unit or function.

  [05:48.75]却减少 了对其他单位或职能的好处.

  [05:52.08]For example,,the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget.

  [05:56.05]例如:销售经 理可能为了提高广告预算而极力说服他人.

  [06:00.02]In the larger scheme of things, however,


  [06:04.70]increased funding for research to improve the products

  [06:10.44]might be more beneficial to the organization.

  [06:12.94]提高研 究基金以改进产品可能对整体组织更大有益处.

  [06:15.43]These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives

  [06:22.38]that organizations wish to attain simultaneously.

  [06:25.16] 因为组 织希望同时达到许多目标,这此权衡就会发生.

  [06:27.94]Some of these objectives are more important than others,

  [06:31.03]其中一 些目标较其他目标更重要,

  [06:34.11]but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department.

  [06:38.63]但其顺 序和重要程度在人与人,部门与 部门之间则常常不同.

  [06:43.15]Different managers define the same problem in different terms.

  [06:46.41]不同的 管理者用不同的术语定义同样的问题.

  [06:49.68]When presented with a common case,sales managers tend to see sales problems,

  [06:53.65]当面对 一件日常事例时,销售经 理倾向于去看销售环节的问题,

  [06:57.62]production managers see production problems,and so on.

  [07:00.28]生产经 理则看生产环节的问题等等.

  [07:02.95]The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based,in part,

  [07:07.08] 在某种程序上,多种目 标的先后顺序和重要性

  [07:11.20]on the values of the decision maker.

  [07:13.54]也基于 决策人的价值观念.

  [07:15.88]Such values are personal;they are hard to understand,

  [07:18.91]这此价 值观具有个人色彩,因为其 可变性和复杂性,

  [07:21.94]even by the individual,because they are so dynamic and complex.


  [07:29.20]In many business situations different people's values about

  [07:32.43]在许多交易情形下,不同的 人们关于风险和盈利的

  [07:35.65]acceptable degrees of risk and profitability

  [07:41.22]cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.

  [07:44.09]可接受 程度的价值观念带来对决策正确性的不同意见.

  [07:46.96]People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon.

  [07:50.74] 人们经 常假设一项决策是孤立的现象.

  [07:54.51]But from a systems point of view,problems have multiple causes,


  [08:01.57]and decisions have intended and unintended consequences.

  [08:05.11]决策有 预期的和非预期的结果.

  [08:08.65]An organization is an ongoing entity,

  [08:11.43]一个组 织是一个正在发展中的实体,

  [08:14.21]and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future.

  [08:16.99]现在的 决策可能给将来带来深远的影响.

  [08:19.77]Thats the skilled manager looks toward the future consequence of current decisions 08:23.86]因而熟 练的管理者会看到当前决策对未来的影响.

  [08:27.95]Text B Secrets of Success at an Interview


  [08:33.70]The subject of today's talk is interviews.

  [08:36.04] 今天谈 论的话题是面试.

  [08:38.37]The key words here are preparation and confidence, which will carry you far.

  [08:41.65] 面试的 关键是准备和自信,这将对 你具有深远的意义.

  [08:44.93]Do your homework first.

  [08:46.60] 首先你要做准备工作.

  [08:48.27]Find out all you can about the job you are applying for

  [08:50.65] 尽量了 解你所申请的工作,

  [08:53.03]and the organization you hope to work for.

  [08:55.07]以及你 所希望为之工作的组织机构.

  [08:57.10]Many of the employers I interviewed made the same criticism of candidates.

  [09:00.28] 我会见 过的许多雇主都对应聘者做了同样的批评,

  [09:03.45]"They have no idea what the day to day work of the job brings about.

  [09:06.13]"他们不 知道日常工作做些什么.

  [09:08.81]They have vague notions of 'furthering the company's prospects'


  [09:14.27]or of 'serving the community',


  [09:17.74]but have never taken the trouble to find out the actual tasks

  [09:22.70]they will be required to do."

  [09:24.38]却从来 不肯下功夫去发现他们将需要做的实际工作."

  [09:26.05]Do not let this be said of you.

  [09:27.77] 不要让 这些话涉及到你.

  [09:29.50]It shows an unattractive indifference to your employer and to your job[09:32.23]这表明 你对雇主和工作没有吸引力,不感兴趣.

  [09:34.96]Take the time to put yourself into the interviewer's place.

  [09:37.38] 花时间 设身处地地为面试接见者想一想.

  [09:39.81]He wants somebody who is hard-working

  [09:42.00]他需要 的是具有友爱的人格,努力工作,

  [09:44.18]with a pleasant personality and a real interest in the job.

  [09:46.85]并且对 工作怀有真正兴趣的人.

  [09:49.53]Anything that you find out about the prospective employer

  [09:54.29]can be used to your advantage during the interview

  [09:56.47] 你所了 解到的朋关未来雇主的任何信息都会在面试中对你有利,

  [09:58.65]to show that you have bothered to master some facts

  [10:03.01]but the people who you hope to work for.

  [10:05.00]它表明 你曾费心去了解你希望为之工作的人的有关事情.

  [10:06.98]Write down(and remember) the questions you want to ask the interviewer(s)


  [10:13.04]so that you are not speechless when they invite your questions.

  [10:15.56]这样他 们请你提问时你就不会哑口无言了.

  [10:18.08]Make sure that holidays and pay are not the first things you ask about.

  [10:21.06]你一定 不要首先问及休假和报酬.

  [10:24.04]If all your questions have been answered during the interview,reply:

  [10:26.77]如果你 的问题在面试中都得到了回答,你应该这样说:

  [10:29.50]"In fact,I did have several questions,but you have already answered them all."

  [10:32.62]"事实上,我的确有一些问题,但你们 已经做出了回答."

  [10:35.74]Do not be afraid to ask for clarification

  [10:40.18]of something that has been said during the interview

  [10:42.21] 面试中 如果你想确认所谈及的内容中有什么隐含意义,

  [10:44.23]if you want to be sure what was implied, but do be polite.


  [10:49.80]Just before you go to the interview,

  [10:51.68] 在去面试之前,

  [10:53.56]look again at the original advertisement that you answered,

  [10:55.93]再看看 你应征的原始广告,

  [10:58.31]any correspondence from your prospective employer,

  [11:00.58]你未来 雇主的所有信件,

  [11:02.86]photocopies of your letter of application or application form and your resume.

  [11:06.10]你的求 职信或求职表的复印件和你的简历.

  [11:09.34]Then you will remember what you said and what they want.

  [11:11.82] 这样你 就记住了你所说的和他们所希望的.

  [11:14.30]This is very important if you have applied for many jobs in a short time

  [11:17.12]如果你 在适时间内申请了许多工作,这点就很重要.

  [11:19.94]as it is easy to become confused and give an impression of inefficiency.

  [11:23.02]因为你 很容易搞混乱了,给人以效率低的印象.

  [11:26.11]Make sure you know where and when you have to report for the interview.

  [11:28.93] 确信何 地何时你必须去面试.

  [11:31.75]Go to the building(but not inside the office)a day or two before,if necessary[11:35.47]如果必要的话,面试前 两天到面试的大楼(但不是办公室里)去一趟,

  [11:39.19]to find out how long the journey,takes and where exactly the place is

  [11:42.22]弄清路 有多远和确切的地点.

  [11:45.25]Aim to arrive five or ten minutes early for the actual interview,

  [11:47.89] 为真正 的面试做好早到5分钟或10分钟的打算,

  [11:50.53]then you will have a little time in hand

  [11:52.50]那么,你手头 儿还有一点儿时间,

  [11:54.48]and you will not panic if you are delayed.


  [11:58.55]You start at a disadvantage if you arrive worried and ten minutes late.

  [12:01.42]如果你 急急忙忙地赶到,迟到10分钟,一开始 你就处于不利地位.

  [12:04.30]Dress in clean,neat,conservative clothes.

  [12:06.62] 穿着要干净,整洁,保守.

  [12:08.95]Now is NOT the time to experiment with the punk look

  [12:11.59]现在不 是尝试名牌打扮

  [12:14.22]or (girls) to wear low-cut dresses with mini skirts.

  [12:16.65]或女孩 穿着领口开得很低的上衣和迷你裙的时候.

  [12:19.08]Make sure that your shoes,hands and hair(and teeth) are clean and neat.


  [12:25.93]Have the letter inviting you for an interview

  [12:28.00] 准备好 出示邀请你来面试的信件,

  [12:30.08]ready to show in case there is any difficulty in communication.

  [12:32.76]以防万 一在交流中出现麻烦.

  [12:35.44]You may find yourself facing one int-erviewer or a panel.

  [12:38.01]你可能 会发现你自己面对着一个接见者或一个专门小组.

  [12:40.58]The latter is far more intimidating, but do not let it worry you too much.

  [12:43.55]后者令人害怕得多,但不要 让它使你过分担忧.

  [12:46.51]The interviewer will probably have a table in front of him/her.

  [12:49.04] 会见者 前面可能会放一张桌子,

  [12:51.58]Do not put your things or arms on it.

  [12:53.64]不要把 你的东西和胳膊放在桌子上.

  [12:55.71]If you have a bag or a case,put it on the floor beside your chair.

  [12:58.49]如果你 有一个包或一个箱子,把它放 在你棒子旁边的地板上.

  [13:01.27]Do not clutch it nervously or,worse still,drop it,spilling everything.

  [13:04.90]不要紧张地用手抓着,甚而更糟的是,掉在地上,把所有 的东西都掉出来了[13:08.53]Shake hands if the interviewer offers his hand first.

  [13:10.90]如果接 见者首先伸过手来,你就和他握手.

  [13:13.26]There is little likelihood that a panel of five

  [13:17.81]wants to go though the process of all shaking hands with you in turn.

  [13:20.48]几乎不 可能五个人的专门小组中大家轮流与你握手.

  [13:23.16]So you do not be upset if no one offers.

  [13:25.38]所以如 果没人主动伸手时,你不要感到不安.

  [13:27.60]Shake hands firmly--a weak hand suggests a weak personality,

  [13:30.68]握手要坚定有力---软弱无 力的手说明导弹的个性,

  [13:33.77]and a crushing grip is obviously painful.

  [13:35.84]而挤压 式的紧握显然是痛苦的.

  [13:37.92]Do not drop the hand as soon as yours has touched it

  [13:40.10]不要刚 一接触就放下你的手,

  [13:42.28]as this will seem to show you do not like the other person.

  [13:44.87]因为这 样似乎表明你不喜欢对方.

  [13:47.45]Speak politely and naturally even if you are feeling shy.

  [13:50.13] 即使你感到害羞,说话也要礼貌,自然.

  [13:52.81]Think before you answer any questions.

  [13:54.83]在回答 任何问题之前都要先想想.

  [13:56.86]If you cannot understand, ask:

  [13:58.99] 如果你没有理解,可以这样请示:

  [14:01.12]"Would you mind rephiasing the question, please?"

  [14:03.15]"请您再 重复一下这个问题,好吗?"

  [14:05.19]The question will then be repeated in different words.

  [14:07.41]会见者 就会用不同的话重复一遍这个问题.

  [14:09.63]If you are not definitely accepted or turned down on the spot,

  [14:12.31] 如果当 场你没有明确地被接受或拒绝,

  [14:14.99]ask:"When may I expect to hear the results of this interview?"

  [14:17.81]你就要问:"我可以 期望在何时所到面试的结果呢?"

  [14:20.63]If you do receive a letter offering you the job,

  [14:22.85] 如果你 确实收到了提供给你工作的信函,

  [14:25.07]you must reply by letter(keep a photocopy) as soon as possible. Good luck!

  [14:28.85]你必须忙地回复信函(保留复印件). 祝好运,杭州翻译公司!

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