翻译大师的博客

讲述翻 译大师学习翻译的心路历程

« 但时间飞逝  英语翻译 »

翻译过程中要直译、意译相结合

  《桃花源记》的6个译文


  The Peach Colony (translated by Lin Yutang 林语堂)


  During the reign of Taiyuan of Chin, there was a fisherman of Wuling. One day he was walking along a bank. After having gone a certain distance, he suddenly came upon a peach grove which extended along the bank for about a hundred yards. He noticed with surprise that the grove had a magic effect, so singularly free from the usual mingling of brushwood, while the beautifully grassy ground was covered with its rose petals. He went further to explore, and when he came to the end of the grove, he saw a spring which came from a cave in the hill, Having noticed that there seemed to be a weak light in the cave, he tied up his boat and decided to go in and explore. At first the opening was very narrow, barely wide enough for one person to go in. After a dozen steps, it opened into a flood of light. He saw before his eyes a wide, level valley, with houses and fields and farms. There were bamboos and mulberries; farmers were working and dogs and chickens were running about. The dresses of the men and women were like those of the outside world, and the old men and children appeared very happy and contented. They were greatly astonished to see the fisherman and asked him where he had come from. The fisherman told them and was invited to their homes, where wine was served and chicken was killed for dinner to entertain him. The villagers hearing of his coming all came to see him and to talk. They said that their ancestors had come here as refugees to escape from the tyranny of Tsin Shih-huang (builder of Great Wall) some six hundred years ago, and they had never left it. They were thus completely cut off from the world, and asked what was the ruling dynasty now. They had not even heard of the Han Dynasty (two centuries before to two centuries after Christ), not to speak of the Wei (third century A.D.) and the Chin (third and fourth centuries). The fisherman told them, which they heard with great amazement. Many of the other villagers then began to invite him to their homes by turn and feed him dinner and wine. After a few days, he took leave of them and left. The villagers begged him not to tell the people outside about their colony. The man found his boat and came back, marking with signs the route he had followed. He went to the magistrate's office and told the magistrate about it. The latter sent someone to go with him and find the place. They looked for the signs but got lost and could never find it again. Liu Tsechi of Nanyang was a great idealist. He heard of this story, and planned to go and find it, but was taken ill and died before he could fulfill his wish. Since then, no one has gone in search of this place.


  Peach-Blossom Springs (trasnlated by Roland C. Fang 方重) (A Prose Narrative)


  During the reign of Emperor Shao-Wu of Eastern Tsin there was once a native of Wuling, who lived on fishing. One day he rowed up a stream, and soon forgot how far he had gone. All of a sudden he came upon a peach grove. For hundreds of paces along both banks of the stream, the peach-trees were in full bloom. No other trees were to be seen in the whole grove. The soft grass looked fresh and beautiful. Here and there falling blossoms were dancing gracefully in a thousand hues. The fisherman was beside himself with amazement. He went on further in order to reach the uppermost limits of the grove. As the peaches came to an end, the headsprings of the stream was found to issue from the side of a mountain. A narrow cave-like opening showed him some light that seemed to emerge from within. Leaving his boat he ventured in. At first it was just wide enough to admit one person. But after a few dozen paces an extensive view suddenly appeared before him. He saw the level plain stretch out far and wide, and the houses and homesteads all neatly arranged. Rich rice-fields, picturesque ponds, and mulberry and bamboo groves were everywhere. The foot-paths crossed and re-crossed one another. As the cocks crowed, the dogs barked in return. All the inhabitants busied themselves with farm work in the same manner as the people outside, so did their men and women attire themselves. The yellow-tressed梳成发髻的 old folk and the youngsters with flowing hair were all living in self-contentment. Seeing the fisherman they were so eager to find out from whence he came. He made his answers accordingly and was invited to their homes to be entertained with chicken and wine. Others in the village, on hearing of the arrival of a stranger, also flocked round to make inquiries. Of their own accord they told him of the forefathers who had, during the troublous times of the Chins, sought refuge in this place of absolute seclusion together with their families and neighbours. After having settled down here they never thought of going out again. They had been so cut off from the rest of the world that a knowledge of the times would be a revelation to them. They had not heard of the Han Dynasty, not to say the Wei and the Tsin. The fisherman informed them all about these changes, and they could not help being deeply affected. Then more of them asked him to dine by turns. It was not until several days later that he begged to take leave. He was bidden, however, to keep to himself all the things talked about among them,, in order to escape from the tumults of war during the Qin Dynasty, led their wives, children and townsmen to this secluded place, and never went out again. Thus they were isolated from the outside world. Their inquiries about the present times showed that they had no idea of the Han, let alone the Wei and Jin dynasties. The fisherman told them everything he knew, and they were all surprised and regretted their ignorance. The remaining folks also invited him to their homes, entertaining him with wine and food. The fisherman, having stayed for several days, bade them farewell. The people said to him, “There is no need to tell the outside world about us.”


  Having left the cave, the fisherman found his boat and rowed along the former route, making marks all the way. Upon his return in the prefecture he visited the prefect and gave him a detailed account. The latter immediately sent some people as his escort, tracing the marks in search of the place. But they went astray and lost their way.


  Liu Ziji of Nanyang, a high-minded recluse, having been informed of it, set out gladly for this unknown village, but to no purpose. Later he died of illness. Afterwards, no one went to search for it again.

  Peach-Blossom Source (translated by A. R. Davis)


  During the Taiyuan period (376--396) of Jin a man of Wuling, who made his living as a fisherman, ascended a stream, forgetful of the distance he traveled. Suddenly he came upon a grove of peach trees in blossom. They lined the banks for several hundred paces: among them were no other kinds of tree. The fragrant herbage was fresh and beautiful; fallen blossom lay in profusion. The fisherman, in extreme wonder, again went forward, wishing to go to the end of the grove,. The grove ended at the stream's source, and there he found a hill. In the hill was a small opening from which a light seemed to come. So he left his boat and went in through the opening. At first it was very narrow, barely allowing a man to pass, but as he went on for some tens of paces, it came out into the open air, upon lands level and wide with houses of a stately appearance. There fine fields and beautiful pools, clumps of mulberries and bamboos. The field dykes intersected; cocks crowed and dogs barked to each other. The clothes of the men and women who came and went, planted and worked among them were entirely like those of people outside. The white-haired and the children with their hair in tufts happily enjoyed themselves.


  When they saw the fisherman, they were greatly surprised and asked from what place he came. When he had answered all their questions, they invited him to come back to their home, where they set out wine, killed a chicken and made a meal. When the villagers heard of this man, they all came to pay their respects. They told him that their ancestors, fleeing from the troubles during the Qin period (221BC--208BC), had brought their wives and children and neighbours to this inaccessible spot and had not gone out again. Thus they became cut off from people outside. They asked what dynasty it was now: they did not know that there had been Han (206 BC--220AD, nor of courts Wei (220--265AD) or Jin. The fisherman told them all he knew, item by item, and at everything they sighed with grief. The others in turn also invited him to their homes, and all set out wine and food. He stayed for several days and then took leave of them. The people of this place said to him: "You should not speak of this to those outside."


  When he had gone out, he found his boat and folllowed the route by which he had come: everywhere he noted the way. When he reached the commandery, he called on the prefect and told him this story. The prefect immediately sent a man to go with him and seek out the places he had previously noted, but they went astray and could not find the way again.


  Liu Ziji of Nanyang, who was a scholar of lofty ideals, heard of it and joyfully planned to go. Soon after, before he had carried out his plan, he fell ill and died. Afterwards there was no one who "sought the ford".


  从《桃花源记》四种英 译文对比研究看文言文翻译


  文言文 翻译要求译者不仅要有较高的汉语水平,还要有 较高的外语水平,这样才 能实现语言之间的准确转换。近年来,随着中 国对外交流的飞速发展,汉译英工作蓬勃开展,相当数 量的中国古代优秀作品译成英语,优秀的作品各具千秋,但仔细 阅读又会发现诸多问题。


  本文将以陶渊明的《桃花源记》为例,对比分 析其四个比较成功的英译版本(即: A Tale of the Fountain of the Peach Blossom Spring--by罗经国; The Peach Colony --by 林语堂; Peach-Blossom Springs by 方重; Peach-Blossom Source -- by A. R. Davis ), 以揭露 文言文翻译的难点。


  首先,题目《桃花源记》,因为此文为叙事散文,所以“记”译成tale 还是比较合适的,但是罗用的fountain与spring有重复之嫌,而林忽略了“源记”的翻译、方和Davis忽视了“记”,则略显不当,所以笔 者也赞成导师高玉芳老师的译文“A Tale of Peach Blossom Spring”。


  文言文 英译的语言准确表达很难!文言文 的翻译过程比较复杂,是“理解(古汉语)----转换(成现代汉语)----表达(成外语)”比现代 文的翻译多了一个很重要的环节――转换,而这期 间避免不了对原文信息的误解和丢失,从而使 原文面临二度损失。


  本文将在词句、篇章方面,分别举 例加以对比分析。


  词句方面:例1,翻译“缘溪行”时,林用walking, 而根据 上下文的理解我们知道,捕鱼人是划船而往的,所以罗的rowed his boat更合适; 例2,翻译“落英缤纷”时,罗用了in riotous profusion, 这样就 失去了情景的美感,与原文意境不符,而林直接用了rose petals更让人不甚明了,Davis 的fallen blossom lay in profusion差强人意,幸好方的Here and there falling blossoms were dancing gracefully in a housand hues 能较好 的描述当时的景色,给人美妙的感受。例3,翻译“不足为外人道也”时,林用了The villagers begged him not to tell the people outside about their colony.,beg意思是祈求请求,罗用了The village people entreated him not to let others know of their existence.,entreat意思是请求恳求,而方用了He was bidden, however, to keep to himself all the things talked about among them, for, they said, such matters would not be worth imparting to the outside world.bidden意思是请求要求命令,impart意思是通知告诉透露。均语气较强,而Davis用的The people of this place said to him: "You should not speak of this to those outside." 则更为贴切。


  篇章方面,由于四 个译者都是翻译大家,对文章 的把握都比较到位,而且文笔畅达、行文流畅,一定程 度上都堪称范文之作,有的译 者评价林语堂的译文:“能用异 国的语言将原文的神韵传达的淋漓尽致; 真实的 再现原文的风格,有时,表面的 背离是为例深层次的服从,形式上 的一致有时并不能从深层意义上反应原作的意图,所以,‘形似’ ‘神似’的取舍 很对程度上取决于译者对原文风格的分析。”但是,我认为,林文省略太多,不仅没 有表达出当时的情景之美、环境之幽、人们之乐,而且对 于术语和特殊的词汇没有适当的说明,不甚恰当。例4,翻译《桃花源记》第二段中“有良田、美池、桑竹之属,阡陌交通,鸡犬相闻,其中往来种作,男女衣着,悉如外人。黄发垂髫,并怡然自乐”时,林的There were bamboos and mulberries; farmers were working and dogs and chickens were running about. The dresses of the men and women were like those of the outside world, and the old men and children appeared very happy and contented.略显简单平乏;而Davis的There fine fields and beautiful pools, clumps of mulberries and bamboos. The field dykes intersected; cocks crowed and dogs barked to each other. The clothes of the men and women who came and went, planted and worked among them were entirely like those of people outside. The white-haired and the children with their hair in tufts happily enjoyed themselves.就丰富的多、真实的多!众所周知,在四位译者中,林是时间最久的一位,毕竟时 代是最好的促进进步的工具,所以,翻译事 业在巨人的肩上,定会蒸蒸日上的!


  翻译文言文时,我们应 该遵循民族性原则。虽然文 言文与现代文学有着线条的社会功能,但是,因为它 有特殊的认识体系,所以在思想原则、概念范 畴方面有独特的规定。文言文 是中华民族特有的文化,有鲜明的民族性,所以应 该在翻译上有所体现,以弘扬 中华优秀的文化遗产。而此民 族性主要体现在术语翻译上。在翻译术语时,我们对 其内涵要加以规定,才能不使其产生歧义,已解决内涵对等问题。虽然中 英在很多术语方面是没有对等的,但,毕竟语 言只是传情达意的符号,所以对 其内涵加以规定,就能保证释义一致性,从而消除误解和歧义。例5,翻译 “黄发垂髫”时,罗用了old and young,林用了old men and children,虽意思无甚偏差,却缺乏中国风采,而方的The yellow-tressed梳成发髻的 old folk and the youngsters with flowing hair 和Davis 的white-haired and the children with their hair in tufts则能较 好的描述古代的风俗,具有鲜明的民族性。例6,“晋太元中”的翻译,罗用了注释法,方用了解释法,Davis用了时间限定法,而林则直译,需要有 一定历史水平的人才能理解。


  在文言文英译方面,翻译大 家尚且不能做到完美,我们这 些学生更应该不知满足积极进取。在平时翻译练习时,应该努 力弄懂古今词义的差别,勤查工具书; 翻译过程中要直译、意译相结合,并准确把握特殊词语、语序、句式的翻译。


  文言文 传承者几千年中国人民智慧的结晶,是无尽的智慧宝藏,其优点 在于闻之精炼优美,微言大义。要译好,需要译 者有良好的古汉语知识基础及现代汉语表达能力和准确的语言转换能力,所以,能达到 翻译的高境界任重而道远。

  • 相关文章:

发表评论

网站分类

文章归档

Tags

Powered By
Copyright 杭州翻译公司 杭州翻译. Some Rights Reserved.

友情链接:    好朋友棋牌   k8彩票网怎么代理   足彩即时比分直播   k8彩票如何充值   网赚彩票代理