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它所展 示的是工业文明带来的各种阶段性结果

  2004年英语专业八级考试--翻译部分(附参考译文)


  C-E 原文:

  在人际 关系问题上我们不要太浪漫主义。人是很有趣的,往往在 接触一个人时首先看到的都是他或她的优点。这一点 颇像是在餐馆里用餐的经验。开始吃 头盘或冷碟的时候,印象很好。吃头两个主菜时,也是赞不绝口。愈吃愈趋于冷静,吃完了这顿筵席,缺点就都找出来了。于是转喜为怒,转赞美为责备挑剔,转首肯为摇头。这是因为,第一,开始吃 的时候你正处于饥饿状态,而饿了吃糠甜加蜜,饱了吃蜜也不甜。第二,你初到一个餐馆,开始举筷时有新鲜感,,新盖的茅房三天香,这也可以叫做“陌生化效应”。


  参考译文:


  We should not be too romantic in interpersonal relations. Human beings are interesting in that they tend to first see good in a new acquaintance. This is like dining in a restaurant. You will be not only favorably impressed with the first two courses. However, the more you have, the more sober you become until the dinner ends up with all the flaws exposed. Consequently, your joy would give way to anger; your praises to criticism or even fault-finding; and your nodding in agreement to shaking the head. What accounts for all this is, in the first place, you are hungry when you start to eat. As the saying goes, “Hunger is the best sauce”, and vice versa.


  E-C 原文:


  For me the most interesting thing about a solitary life, and mine has been that for the last twenty years, is that it becomes increasingly rewarding. When I can wake up and watch the sun rise over the ocean, as I do most days, and know that I have an entire day ahead, uninterrupted, in which to write a few pages, take a walk with my dog, read and listen to music, I am flooded with happiness. //I am lonely only when I am overtired , when I have worked too long without a break, when for the time being I feel empty and need filling up. And I am lonely sometimes when I come back home after a lecture trip, when I have seen a lot of people and talked a lot, and am full to the brim with experience that needs to be sorted out.// Then for a little while the house feels huge and empty, and I wonder where my self is hiding. It has to be recaptured slowly by watering the plants and, perhaps, by looking again at each one as though it were a person. // It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains, but the moment comes when the world falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconscious, bring back all I have recently experienced to be explored and slowly understood.


  参考译文:


  只有当 我疲劳过度的时候,在我长 时间工作而没有休息的时候,或是在 我感到心头空虚而需要充实的时候,我才感到孤独。有时,当外出讲学后回家,见过许多人,讲了很多话,满脑子的感受,需要梳理的时候,我也会感到孤独。// 屋子有 一阵子显得空荡荡的,而我不 知自我潜藏何处。只有去浇浇花草,或许,然后再 注目每一株花草,将之视为活生生的人,我才能 渐渐找回失去的自我。


  找回自我,需要一点时间。我看着浪花迸若喷泉,不过这 样的时刻降临了,身边的世界渐次隐遁,自我,再次从 潜意识深处浮现,带回了最近的经历,那等待 探究和细细品味的经历。


  2003年全国 英语专业八级考试(TEM8)的翻译部分(附参考译文)


  C-E原 文:

  得病以前,我受父母宠爱,在家中横行霸道,一旦隔离,拘禁在 花园山坡上一幢小房子里,我顿感打入冷宫,十分郁郁不得志起来。一个春天的傍晚,园中百花怒放,父母在园中设宴,一时宾客云集,笑语四溢。我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗帘,窥见园中大千世界,一片繁华,自己的哥姐,堂表弟兄,也穿插其间,个个喜气洋洋。一霎时,一阵被人摒弃,为世所 遗的悲愤兜上心头,禁不住痛哭起来。


  参考译文(1):

  Before I was taken ill, I had been a spoiled child of my parents, getting things my way in the family. Once isolated and confined to a small house on the slope of the garden, I suddenly found myself in disfavour and my wings clipped. One spring evening, with myriads of flowers in full bloom in the garden, my parents held a garden party in honour of many guests, whose arrival at once filled the place with laughing chats. In the small house on the slope, I quietly lifted the curtain, only to be met by a great and prosperous world with my elder brothers and sisters and my cousins among the guests, all in jubilation. All at once, seized by a fit of forlorn rage, I could not help bursting into tears.


  参考译文(2):

  Before I fell ill, I had been the bully under our roofs (in my family) owing to my doting parents. Feeling like being deposed into a cold palace, I began to taste the bitterness of depression and frustration immediately after I was segregated and confined in a small house on a hillside in our garden. On a spring evening, my parents gave a banquet in the garden where a profusion of flowers were in full bloom. In no time, crowd of their guests collected and laughter was heard all over there. I, without being noticed, lifted the curtain in my small room, only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden, and my elder sisters, brothers and cousins, each full of the joys of spring, were shuttling among the guests/helping treat(host) the guests . Quickly enough, I was thrown into a fist of sorrowful anger at being forgotten and discarded by the rest and could not help crying my heart out.


  E-C原 文:


  In his classic novel, “The Pioneers”, James, Feminore Cooper has his hero, a land developer, take his cousin on a tour of the city he is building. He describes the broad streets, rows of houses, a teeming metropolis. But his cousin looks around bewildered. All she sees is a forest, “Where are the beauties and improvements which you were to show me?” she asks. He’s astonished she can’t see them. “Where! Why everywhere,” he replies. For though they are not yet built on earth, he has built them in his mind, and they are as concrete to him as if they were already constructed and finished.// Cooper was illustrating a distinctly American trait, future-mindedness: the ability to see the present from the vantage point of the future; the freedom to feel unencumbered by the past and more emotionally attached to things to come. As Albert Einstein once said, “Life for the American is always becoming, never being.”


  参考译文:


  詹姆斯 费尼莫尔库柏在其经典小说《拓荒者》中,记述了主人公―― 一位土地开发商――带着表 妹游览一座他将要建造的城市的情景。他向表 妹描绘了宽阔的街道,排排的房屋,俨然一 座熙来攘往的大都市。// 然而,杭州翻译公司,表妹环顾四周,却一脸迷茫,她所看 到的只是一片森林。于是她问:“你要给 我看的美景和改观在哪里啊?”他很惊讶,她居然 还不能心领神会。便回答说:“还问哪里?这不到处都是嘛。”因为尽 管他还没有把它们真正建成,他却早 已在心中构想好了。它们对 他来说是如此真实具体仿佛它们早已建成。


  库柏在 这里揭示了一种美国人独有的特征,即前瞻性:他们能 够站在未来的高度来看现在的一切;摆脱过 去束缚而更加心系未来。正如埃尔伯特?爱因斯坦曾言:“对美国人来说,生活总是进取,而非守成。”


  2002年全国 英语专业八级考试(TEM8)的翻译部分(附参考译文)


  C-E原 文:

  大自然对人的恩赐,无论贫富,一律平等。所以人们对于大自然,全都一 直并深深地依赖着。尤其在乡间,上千年 来人们一直以不变的方式生活着。种植庄稼和葡萄,酿酒和饮酒,喂牛和挤奶,除草和栽花;在周末 去教堂祈祷和做礼拜,在节日到广场拉琴、跳舞和唱歌;往日的 田园依旧是今日的温馨家园。这样,每个地 方都有自己的传说,风俗也就衍传了下来。


  参考译文(1):


  The bounty of nature is equal to everyone, rich or poor, and therefore all men are strongly attached to her. This is particularly true in the rural areas, where people have kept the same lifestyle for a millennium or so. They plant crops and grapevines, brew wine to drink, feed cows to milk, and weed gardens to grow flowers. They go to church at weekends, and they meet in the square on holidays, playing the violin, singing and dancing. The age-old land remains the same as their family hearth. Each place boasts its folklore and thereby social customs go down.


  参考译文(2):


  The bounty of Nature is equal to everyone, rich or poor, and therefore all men are strongly attached to her. This is particularly true in the rural areas, where people have kept the same lifestyle for a millennium or so. They plant crops and grapevines, brew wine to drink, feed cows to milk, and weed the garden to grow flowers. They go to church at weekends, and they meet in the square on holidays, playing the violins, singing and dancing. The age-old land remains the same as their family hearth. Each place boasts its folklore and thereby social customs go down.


  E-C原 文:


  The word “winner” and “loser” have many meanings. When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who makes someone else lose. To us, a winner is one who responds authentically by being credible, trustworthy, responsive, and genuine, both as an individual and as a member of a society. // Winners do not dedicate their lives to a concept of what they imagine they should be: rather, they are themselves and as such do not use their energy putting on a performance, maintaining pretence, and manipulating others. They are aware that there is a difference between being loving and acting loving, between being stupid and acting stupid, between being knowledgeable and acting knowledgeable. Winners do not need to hide behind a mask. // Winners are not afraid to do their own thinking and to use their own knowledge. They can separate facts from opinions and don’t pretend to have all the answers. They listen to others, evaluate what they say, but come to their own conclusions. Although winners can adore and respect other people, they are not totally defined, demolished, bound, or awed by them.


  Winners do not play “helpless”, nor do they play the blaming game. Instead, they assume responsibility for their own lives.


  参考译文:


  成功者 不会毕生致力于这样一种概念:即想象 自己应该成为何种人。相反,他们即他们自己。因此,他们不 会费神去装腔作势,故作姿态,摆布他人。他们明白:爱与装爱,傻与装傻,知与装知、真正博 学与假装博学之间是有区别的。成功者 无须躲在面具后面。// 成功者敢于独立思考,敢于运用自己的知识。他们能 够把事实从纷繁的意见中剥离出来,而又不 会假装无所不知。


  他们倾听他人的意见,品评他人的言论,却能得出自己的结论。虽然胜 利者也钦佩他人,尊敬他人,但是,他们不 会完全被他人所规定、所摧垮、所束缚,所吓倒。// 成功者不会假装无助,也不会怨天尤人,相反,他们承 担起自己生命的责任。


  2001年全国 英语专业八级考试(TEM8)的翻译部分(附参考译文)


  C-E原文:


  乔羽的歌大家都熟悉。但他另 外两大爱好却鲜为人知,那就是钓鱼和喝酒。晚年的乔羽喜爱垂钓,他说:“有水有 鱼的地方大都是有好环境的,好环境便会给人好 心情。我认为最好的钓鱼场所不是舒适的、给你准 备好饿鱼的垂钓园,而是那极其有吸引力 的大自 然野外天成的场所。”钓鱼是 一项能够陶冶性情的运动,有益于身心健康。乔羽说: “钓鱼可分三个阶段:第一阶段是吃鱼;第二阶 段是吃鱼和情趣兼而有之;第三阶段主要是 的趣,面对一池碧水,将忧心 烦恼全都抛在一边,使自己 的身心得到充分休息。”


  参考译文:

  Qiao Yu took to fishing in his old age. He said: “Where there is fish and w ater, there is good environment, and good environment fills one’s heart with joy (makes one feel delighted, delights everyone, gives delight to everyone). I thi nk the best place for fishing is not a comfortable man-made fish-pond where hung ry fish are ready (provided) for you, but an enchanting place in the wild where everything is natural. ”Fishing (Angling) is a game that can help improve one’s temperament (character). It is good for mental and bodily health. Qiao Yu said: “Fishing falls into three stages. The first stage is just for eating fish. The s econd stage is for eating fish and for enjoying the pleasure of fishing as well. (The second stage is for enjoying the pleasure of fishing as well as eating fis h. ) The third stage is mainly for the pleasure of fishing facing a pool of gree n water, one casts (throws) aside all anxieties and worries and enjoys (takes) a good rest, both mental and physical.”


  E-C原文:


  Possession for its own sake or in competition with the rest of the neighbo rhood would have been Thoreau’s idea of the low levels. The active discipline o f heightening one’s perception of what is enduring in nature would have been his idea of the high. What he saved from the low was time and effort he could spend on the high. Thoreau certainly disapproved of starvation, but he would put into feeding himself only as much effort as would keep him functioning for more impor tant efforts.

  Effort is the gist of it. There is no happiness except as we take on life- engaging difficulties. Short of the impossible, as Yeats put it, the satisfactio n we get from a lifetime depends on how high we choose our difficulties. Robert Frost was thinking in something like the same terms when he spoke of “The pleas u re of taking pains”. The mortal flaw in the advertised version of happiness is in the fact that it purports to be effortless.

  We demand difficulty even in our games. We demand it because without diffi culty there can be no game. A game is a way of making something hard for the fun of it. The rules of the game are an arbitrary imposition of difficulty. When someone ruins the fun, he always does so by refusing to play by the roles. It is e asier to win at chess if you are free, at your pleasure, to change the wholly ar bitrary roles, but the fun is in winning within the rules. No difficulty, no fun.


  参考译文:


  梭罗所理解的“低层次”,即为了拥有而去拥有,或与所 有的邻居明争暗斗而致拥有。他心目中的“高层次”,则是这 样一种积极的人生戒律,即要使 自己对自然界永恒之物的感悟臻于完美。对于他 从低层次上节省下来的时间和精力,他可将 其致力于对高层次的追求。勿庸置疑,梭罗不赞成忍饥挨饿,但他在 膳食方面所投入的精力仅果腹而已,只要可 确保他能去从事更为重要的事务,他便别无所求。


  付出努 力才是其本质所在,除非我 们终生与困难为伴,否则就无幸福可谈。正如济慈所 言,除去不可能做的事,我们一 生获得的满足有多大,取决于 我们选择的困难有多强。罗伯 特福剂罗斯特谈到“苦中求乐”时,也有异曲同工之理。就通常 宣传的幸福而言,其致命弱 点在于 声称不用付出努力即可获得幸福。

  我们甚 至在竞赛中寻求困难。我们需要困难,因为没 有困难也就无所谓竞赛,竞赛是制 造困难 以求得乐趣之道。竞赛规 则就是任意强加的困难。违犯竞 赛规则就是破坏乐趣。下棋 时,随心所欲,肆意更 改强制之规更易获胜。然而乐 趣源于获胜而又遵守规则。没有困难就 没有乐趣。


  2000年全国 英语专业八级考试(TEM8)的翻译部分(附参考译文)


  C-E原文:


  中国科 技馆的诞生来之不易。与国际 著名科技馆和其他博物馆相比,它先天有些不足,后天也常缺乏营养,但是它 成长的步伐却是坚实而有力的。它在国 际上已被公认为后起之秀。世界上 第一代博物馆属于自然博物馆,它是通过化石、标本等 向人们介绍地球和各种生物的演化历史。第二代 属于工业技术博物馆,它所展 示的是工业文明带来的各种阶段性结果。这两代 博物馆虽然起到了传播科学知识的作用,但是,它们把 参观者当成了被动的旁观者 。// 世界上 第三代博物馆是充满全新理念的博物馆。在这里,观众可 以自己去动手操作,自己细心体察。这样,他们可 以更贴近先进的科学技术,去探索 科学技术的奥妙。// 中国科 技馆正是这样的博物馆!它汲取 了国际上一些著名博物馆的长处,设计制作了力学、光学、电学、热学、声学、生物学等展品,展示了 科学的原理和先进的科技成果。


  参考译文:

  The first generation of museums are what might be called natural museums which, by means of fossils, specimens and other objects, introduced to people the evolutionary history of the Earth and various kinds of organisms. The second generation are those of industrial technologies which presented the fruits achieved by industrial civilization at different stages of industrialization. Despite the fact that those two generations of museums helped to disseminate / propagate / spread scientific knowledge, they nevertheless treated visitors merely as passive viewers. // The third generation of museums in the world are those replete with / full of wholly novel concepts / notions / ideas. In those museums, visitors are allowed to operate the exhibits with their own hands, to observe and to experience carefully. By getting closer to the advanced science and technologies in this way, people can probe into their secret mysteries.


  The China Museum of Science and Technology is precisely one of such museums. It has incorporated some of the most fascinating features of those museums with international reputation. Having designed and created exhibits in mechanics, optics, electrical science, thermology, acoustics, and biology, those exhibits demonstrate scientific principles and present the most advanced scientific and technological achievements.


   E-C原文


  If people mean anything at all by the expression “untimely death”, they m us t believe that some deaths nm on a better schedule than others. Death in old age is rarely called untimely―a long life is thought to be a full one. But with the passing of a young person, one assumes that the best years lay ahead and the measure of that life was still to be taken. History denies this, of course. Among prominent summer deaths, one recalls those of MariLarry Monroe and James Deans, whose lives seemed equally brief and complete. Writers cannot bear the fact that poet John Keats died at 26, and only half playfully judge their own lives as failures when they pass that year. The id ea that the life cut short is unfulfilled is illogical because lives are measure d by the impressions they leave on the world and by their intensity and virtue.


  参考译文(1):


  如果人们藉"英年早逝"这一字 眼真的意欲表达什么含义的话,他们必 然相信某些人的辞世可以算是寿终正寝,而另一些人则"死不逢时" 。死于年迈很少被冠以"死不逢时"之名,因为能 度过漫长的一生被认为是甚为圆满的。反之,如果所 碰到的是一位年轻人之死,人们会 以为这位年轻人风华正茂,前途无可限量,生命的 倒计时尚未真正开始。


  当然,历史否定这一切。在诸多较为著名的"英年早逝"的情形中,我们会忆起玛丽莲.梦露与詹姆斯.迪恩斯之死,其生命 的短暂丝毫无损于其生命的完整性。对于约翰.济慈年方26便溘然长逝这一事实,文人墨 客们皆痛不欲生,但他们 中仅有半数人诙谐地认为,设若他 们也死于这一年龄,其一生可视为失败。视英年早逝为不圆满,这一观念有悖于逻辑,因为衡 量生命的尺度乃是留给世界的印记,是生命 的力度及其美德。


  参考译文(2):


  提起英年“早逝”,人们或有所指。人们定 会相信有些人死亡的时刻更为适宜。寿终正寝极少称为“早逝”。长寿即 意味着生命之完整。但英年 早逝常令人感到逝者美好时光尚未到来,一生之评说尚未做出。然而,历史却否认这点,提起杰出的早逝者,人们定 会亿起玛丽莲梦露和詹姆士迪恩。两人生命短暂,却完美无缺。诗人约翰?济慈26岁与世长辞,作家们对此难以接受。而他们自己过了26岁时却 只能半开玩笑地认为今生今世无所作为。生命短暂即未成果这―观念荒谬无理。生命的 价值取决于它留给世界的印象、它的贡献及它的美德。


  1999年全国 英语专业八级考试(TEM8)的翻译部分(附参考译文)


  C-E原文:


  加拿大的温哥华1986年刚刚度过百岁生日,但城市 的发展令世界瞩目。以港立市,以港兴市,是许多 港口城市生存发展的道路。经过百年开发建设,有着天 然不冻良港的温哥华,成为举 世闻名的港口城市,同亚洲、大洋洲、欧洲、拉丁美 洲均有定期班轮,年货物吞吐量达到8,000万吨,全市就 业人口中有三分之一从事贸易与运输行业。


  温哥华(Vancouver)的辉煌 是温哥华人智慧和勤奋的结晶,其中包 括多民族的贡献。加拿大地广人稀,国土面积比中国还大,人口却不足3000万。吸收外来移民,是加拿 大长期奉行的国策。可以说,加拿大 除了印第安人外,无一不是外来移民,不同的 只是时间长短而已。温哥华 则更是世界上屈指可数的多民族城市。现今180万温哥华居民中,有一半 不是在本地出生的,每4个居民 中就有一个是亚洲人。而25万华人 对温哥华的经济转型起着决定性的作用。他们其中有一半是近5年才来 到温哥华地区的,使温哥 华成为亚洲以外最大的中国人聚居地。


  参考译文:


  Vancouver’s prosperity owes to the intelligence and diligence of the people there, as well as to the contributions made by a variety of other ethnic groups. Canada is vast country with a sparse population, having a territory larger than that of China but a population of less than 30 million. That is why Canada has long adopted a national policy of absorbing immigrants from other countries. We may say that, with the exception of the (aboriginal) Indian people, Canadians are made up immigrants, different from each other only in how long they have settled down there. Vancouver is most typical of this which is among the few cities in the world featuring multi-nationalities. Of the 18 million people living in Vancouver nowadays, half were not born in Vancouver and 1/4 is from Asia. Out of the 250 thousand Chinese-Canadians who have played a decisive role in Vancouver’s economic growth, half have immigrated to the region only 5 years before. All these Chinese-Canadians have made Vancouver the region with the largest Chinese communities outside China.


   E-C原 文:


  In some societies people want children for what might be called familial reasons: to extend the family line or the family name, to propitiate the ancestors; to enable the proper functioning of religious rituals involving the family. Such reasons may seem thin in the modern, secularized society but they have been and are powerful indeed in other places. // In addition, one class of family reasons shares a border with the following category, namely, having children in order to maintain or improve a marriage: to hold the husband or occupy the wife; to repair or rejuvenate the marriage; to increase the number of children on the assumption that family happiness lies that way. The point is underlined by its converse: in some societies the failure to bear children (or males) is a threat to the marriage and a ready cause for divorce. // Beyond all that is the profound significance of children to the very institution of the family itself. To many people, husband and wife alone do not seem a proper family ―they need children to enrich the circle, to validate its family character, to gather the redemptive influence of offspring. Children need the family, but the family seems also to need children, as the social institution uniquely available, at least in principle, for security, comfort, assurance, and direction in a changing, often hostile, world. To most people, such a home base, in the literal sense, needs more than one person for sustenance and in generational extension.


  参考译文:


  在某些社会中,人们希 望拥有孩子是出于所谓的家庭原因:传宗接代,光宗耀祖,讨好祖辈,使那些 涉及到家庭的宗教仪式得以正常进行。此类原 因在现代世俗化的社会中似显苍白,但它们 在其他地方曾一度构成并确实仍在构成强有力的理由。//此外,有一类 家庭原因与下列类别不无共通之处,这便是:生儿育 女是为了维系或改善婚姻:能拴住 丈夫或者使妻子不致于无所事事;修复或重振婚姻;多子多孙,以为家 庭幸福惟有此法。这一点 更可以由其反面得到昭示:在某些社会中,无法生儿育女(或无法生育男孩)对婚姻 而言是一种威胁,还可作 为离婚的现成借口。//后代对 于家庭这一体制本身所具有的深远意义远非如此。对许多人来说,夫妻两 人尚不足以构成一个真正意义上的家庭――夫妻需 要孩子来丰富其两人小天地,赋予该 小天地以真正意义上的家庭性质,并从子 孙后代身上获取某种回报。// 孩子需要家庭,但家庭 似乎也需要孩子。家庭作 为一种社会机构,以其特有的方式,至少从原则上说,可在一个变幻莫测、常常是 充满敌意的世界中让人从中获取某种安全、慰藉、保障,以及价值取向。


  1998年全国 英语专业八级考试(TEM8)的翻译部分(附参考译文)


  C-E原文:


  1997年2月24日我们 代表团下榻日月潭中信大饭店,送走了最后一批客人,已是次日凌晨3点了。我躺在 床上久久不能入睡,披衣走到窗前,往外看去,只见四周峰峦叠翠,湖面波光粼粼。望着台 湾这仅有的景色如画的天然湖泊,我想了许多,许多……


  这次到台湾访问交流,虽然行程匆匆,但是,看了不少地方,访了旧友,交了新知,大家走到一起,谈论的 一个重要话题就是中华民族在21世纪的强盛。虽然祖国大陆、台湾的 青年生活在不同的社会环境中,有着各 自不同的生活经历,但大家 的内心都深深铭刻着中华文化优秀传统的印记,都拥有 着振兴中华民族的共同理想。在世纪 之交的伟大时代,我们的 祖国正在走向繁荣富强,海峡两 岸人民也将加强交流,共同推 进祖国统一大业的早日完成。世纪之 交的宝贵机遇和巨大挑战将青年推到了历史前台。跨世纪 青年一代应该用什么样的姿态迎接充满希望的新世纪,这是我 们必须回答的问题。


  日月潭水波不兴,仿佛与我一同在思索……


  参考译文:


  The current visit to Taiwan for exchange, brief and cursory as it is, has enabled us to see many places, to visit old friends while making new acquaintances. Whenever people gather together, an important topic of discussion has been how the Chinese nation can become prosperous and powerful in the 21st century. Although the young people on the Mainland and in Taiwan live in different social contexts (environments / milieus), with their individually different experiences of life, in the innermost recesses of their hearts are wrought an indelible mark by the fine traditions of the Chinese culture. They all cherish the same ideal to rejuvenate the Chinese nation (They share the same ideal to rejuvenate the Chinese nation). In this great epoch at the turn of the century, our motherland is developing toward greater prosperity and powerfulness. People across the Taiwan Straits are bound to strengthen their exchanges and will mutually promote the earliest possible achievement of the great cause of reunification of the motherland. The precious opportunities and the tremendous challenges at the turn of the century have pushed the young people to the foreground (forefront) of the historical arena (stage). At this transitional phase between the two millennia, in what way the young generation should embrace the forthcoming new century replete with hopes is a question to which we have to seek an answer.


   E-C原 文:


  I agree to some extent with my imaginary English reader. American literary historians are perhaps prone to view their own national scene too narrowly, mistaking prominence for uniqueness. They do over-phrase their own literature, or certainly its minor figures. And Americans do swing from aggressive over phrase of their literature to an equally unfortunate, imitative deference. But then, the English themselves are somewhat insular in their literary appraisals. Moreover, in fields where they are not pre-eminent ― e. g. in painting and music ―they too alternate between boasting of native products and copying those of the Continent. How many English paintings try to look as though they were done in Paris; how many times have we read in articles that they really represent an “English tradition” after all.


    To speak of American literature, then, is not to assert that it is completely unlike that of Europe. Broadly speaking, America and Europe have kept step. At any given moment the traveler could find examples in both of the same architecture, the same styles in dress, the same books on the shelves. Ideas have crossed the Atlantic as freely as men and merchandise, though sometimes more slowly. When I refer to American habit, thoughts, etc., I intend some sort of qualification to precede the word, for frequently the difference between America and Europe (especially England) will be one of degree, sometimes only of a small degree. The amount of divergence is a subtle affair, liable to perplex the Englishman when he looks at America. He is looking at a country which in important senses grew out of his own, which in several ways still resembles his own ― and which is yet a foreign country. There are odd overlappings and abrupt unfamiliarities; kinship yields to a sudden alienation, as when we hail a person across the street, only to discover from his blank response that we have mistaken a stranger for a friend.


  参考译文:


  那么,要谈论美国文学,倒并非意欲断言,它与欧 洲文学全然大相径庭。广而言之,美国与 欧洲一直同步发展,协调一致。在任何 一个特定的时刻,旅行者 在两地均能目睹同一样式的建筑实例,相同款式的服饰,书架上相同的书籍。在大西洋两岸,思想如 同人员与货物往来一样自由交流,尽管有时会略显迟缓。当我提 及美国式的习惯、思想等概念时,我意欲在“美国式的”这一词 汇之前加上某种限定,因为欧美(尤其是英美)之间的 差异往往只是程度上的差异而已,并且有 时候仅仅只是微乎其微的一点程度差异而已。差异的 多寡是件极为微妙的事务,这极容 易使一个英国人在审视美国时大惑不解。他所审视的那个国家,从某些 重要的意义上来说,诞生于他自己的国家,并在某 些方面仍与他自己的国家相差无几――然而,它却实 实在在是一个异邦。两者间 存在着某些古怪的交替重迭,以及令 人甚感突兀的陌生感;亲缘关 系已让位于一种突如其来的异化与疏远,这种情 景仿佛就像我们隔着马路向另一个人打招呼,结果却 从这个人漠无表情的反应中发现,我们原 来竟将一个陌生人误认为我们的熟人。


  注:本部分 内容部分来自于网络。

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