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表示增加意义的动词+n times“表示成倍地增长

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  第一部分:数词的译法一、数字增减的译法:1.句式特征:by+名词+比较级+thanThe wire is by three inches longer than that one.这根导线比那根长3英寸。2.句式特征:表示增减意义的动词+to+n.译为:增加到。。。。或减少到。。。。Metal cutting machines have been decreased to 50.金属切 割机已经减少到50台。二、百分数 增减的表示法与译法1.句式特征:表示增减意义的动词+%The output value has increased 35%.产值增加了35%2.句式特征:表示增减意义的动词+by+%Retail salses should rise by 8%商品零售额应增加3%The prime cost decreased by 60%.主要成本减少60%3.句式特征:表示减少意义的动词+to+%表示减 少后剩余的数量By using this new-process the loss of metal was reduced to 20%.采用这种新工艺,铁的损失量减少到20%4.句式特征:%+ 比较级 +than表示净增减的数量Retail sales are expected to be nine percent higher than last year.今年零 售额与去年相比,有望增加9%。5.句式特征:% + 比较级 + 名词表示净减数The new-type machine wasted 10 percent engergy supplied. 新型机械能耗量净减10%6.句式特征:a + % + increase表示净增数There is a 20% increase of steel as compared with last year.与去年相比,今年钢产量净增20%7.句式特征:%+ (of) 名词(代词)表示净减数,数字n照译The production cost is about 60 percent that of last year.今年产值仅为去年的60%8.句式特征:%+up on 或over表示净增数The grain output of last year in this province was 20% percent up on that of1978.去年粮食产量比1978年净增20%。第二部分 倍数增 加的表示法及译法汉语表示“增加了几倍”时,英语的 倍数表示倍数需减一,译成“增加了n-1倍”以表示净增加数。如果译成“增加到n倍”或“为原来的n倍”,则照译不误。1.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+n times“表示成倍地增长,译成”增加到N倍“或”增加n-1倍“注:1倍 once; 2倍twice(或double);3倍thrice(或three times)2.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+by+ n times,该句式与上述相同3.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+to+ n times表示增加到N倍,译成”增加了n-1倍“4.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+by a factor of + n times5.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+比较级+by a factor of + n times表示增 加以后达到的倍数,译成”比。。。。。。大(长、宽。。。)N-1倍“6.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+ n times+比较级+than。。。。。7.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+ n times +adj./adv. +as....8.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+a + n times(或n-fold) +increase.......表示增加到N倍,译成”增加了N-1倍“9.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+as + adj./adv.+ again as.....译成”比。。。。大(长、宽。。。。倍)“例子: Line A is as long again as line B. A线比B线长1倍。This machine turns half as fast again as that one.这台机 器转动比那台机器快半倍。10.句式特点:表示增加意义的动词+half as + adj./adv.+ again as.....译成”比。。。。大(长、宽。。。。半倍)“11. 句式特点:用double表示倍数,译成”等于.....的2倍“或”增加了1倍“12.句式特点:用treble表示倍数增加,译成”增加到3倍“或”增加了2倍“13.句式特点:用quadruple表示倍数增加,译成”增加到4倍“或”增加了3倍“第三部分 倍数减 少的表示方法倍数减少在英译时,需把倍数换算成分数。成几倍减少,可以改译成”减少到1/N“或减少了”N-1/N“。而减少了N倍,可改译成”减少到1/N+1“或”减少了N/N+1“。1.句式特点:表示减少意义的动词+N times表示成N倍减少,译成”减少到1/N“或”减少了N-1/N“The length of laser tube was reduced ten times.激光管 的长度缩短了十分之九。2.句式特点:表示减少意义的动词+by+N times表示成N倍减少,译成”减少到1/N“或”减少了N-1/N“The bandwith was reduced by two times.带宽减少了二分之一。3.句式特点:表示减少意义的动词+by a factor of + N times表示成N倍减少,译成”减少到1/N“或”减少了N-1/N“4.句式特点:表示减少意义的动词+a-N times(N-fold)+ reduction译成”减少到1/N“或”减少了N-1/N“The principal advantage over the old-fashioned machine is a four-fold reductionin weight.与旧式机器比,主要特 点是重量减少了四分之三。5.句式特点:表示减少意义的动词+N times+as +adj./adv. .....译成”减少到1/N“或”减少了N-1/N“6.句式特点:表示减少意义的动词+N times+ 比较级+than表示减少了N倍,译成”减少到1/N+1”或“减少了1/N+1“The plastic container is five times lighter than that glass one.这个塑 料容器比那个玻璃容器轻六分之五。英语倍 数句型及其译法英语表示倍数增减或倍数对比的句型多种多样,其中有 一些(如下文中的句型②、⑤、⑥、⑧、(12) 等, 见圈码)很容易译错――其主要原因在于:英汉两 语在表述或对比倍数方面存在着语言与思维差异。现将常 用的英 语倍数句型及其正确译法归纳如下:倍数增加 (一) A is n times as great(long,much,…)as B.(①) A is n times greater (longer,more,…)than B.(②) A is n times the size (length,amount,。 Eg. The drain voltage has been increased by a factor of four. 漏电压增加了3借(即增加到原来的4倍)。注:在这类句型中increase常被raise,grow,go/step up,multiply等词所替代。(三)There is a n-fold increase/growth…(⑧)应译为:增加n-倍(或增至n倍)。这个句 型还有其它一些形式: Eg. A record high increase in value of four times was reported. 据报道,价值破记录地增长了3倍。(四)double (增加1倍),treble(增加2倍),quadruple(增加3倍)。(⑨) Eg. The efficiency of the machines has been more than trebled or quadrupled.这些机 器的效率已提高了2倍或3倍多。(五)此外,英语中还有一种用again而不用 倍数词来比较倍数的方法,如: A is as much (large,long,…)again as B.(= A istwice as much (large,long,…)as B.(⑩)应译为:A比B多(大,长,……)1倍。 A is half as much (large, 1ong,…)again as B. 【= A is one and a half times as much (large, 1ong,…)as B.】(11)应译为:A比B多(大,长……)一半(即A是B的一倍半)。倍数减少(一)A is n times as small (light,slow,…)as B.(12) A is n times smaller (lighter,slower,…) than B.(13)以上两句均应译为:A的大小(重量,速度,……)是B的1/n[或A比B小(轻,慢,……)(n-1)/n]。 Eg. The hydrogen atom is near1y l6 times as light as the oxygen atom. 氢原子 的重量约为氧原子的1/16(即比氧原子约轻15/16)。 Eg. This sort of membrane is twice thinner than ordinary paper. 这种薄 膜比普通纸张要薄一半(即是普通纸厚度的1/2)。注:当相比的对象B很明显时,than/as B常被省去。(二)decrease n times/n--fold (14) decrease by n times(15) decrease by a factor of n(16)以上三式均译为:减少到1/n[或:减少(n-1)/n]。 decrease常被reduce, shorten, go/slow down等词替代。 Eg. Switching time of the new-type transistor is shortened 3 times. 新型晶 体管的开关时间缩短了1/3(即缩短到2/3)。 Eg. When the voltage is stepped up by ten times, thestrength of the current is stepped down by ten times. 电压升高9倍,电流强度便降低9/10(即90%)。 Eg. The equipment reduced the error probability by a factor of 5. 该设备 误差概率降低了4/5。(三)There is a n-fold decrease/reduction… 应译为:减至1/n [或:减少(n一1)/n]。(17)这个句 型还有其它一些形式, Eg. A rapid decrease by a factor of 7 was observed.发现迅速减少到1/7。 Eg. The principal advantage of the products is a two-fold reduction in weight. 这些产 品的主要优点是重量减轻了1/2。从上列 倍数增减句型及其译法中不难看出:与汉语不 同的是,英语在 表述或比较倍数时,无论使用什么句 型(除了不含倍数词的again句型外)都包括基础倍数在内,因此都 不是净增或净减n倍,而是净增或 净减n-1倍。所以句型⑤、③表示的倍数增量=句型④; 句型(13)表示的倍数比差=句型12,且decrease(by) 3 times应译为“减少2/3”,而不是“减少3/4”。第四部分 动词的 使动用法动词是英语中词类中最为活跃的成分,至今对 于动词的使用我一直是胆战心惊的,现介绍 一些使动用法共勉。1.I slowly walked my horse up the hill.我慢慢地带马上山。2.The ran the ship aground.他们把 船开到滩上去了。3.The swam their horses in the river.他们使马泅水渡河。4.I laid myself down to rest my wearied limbs.我躺下 来好让疲惫的腿休息一下。5.They rode out the storm.他们安 然渡过风暴其实,研究动词个人认为,要把握后面有无宾语;宾语是人还是物;是什么样的宾语。欢迎网友探讨,动词的学习研讨方法。第五部分 同系宾语1. I dreamed a strange dream.2.He slept the sleep that knows no waking.3.I have fought a good fight.一、在同系 宾语上附有修饰形容词时,通常可换成态度副词。live a long life = live long;live a happy life = live happily;die a national death = die nationally;die a violent death = die by violence二、有的宾 语与动词不同语源,但意义相通,也可以视为同类。run a race; run a course; run one's career; fight a battle; blow a gale; strike a blow;ring a peal; wreak one's vengeance三、以it构成的类型:I am determined to fight it out。我决心奋斗到底。He is starring it in the provinces.他到各地巡回演出。We had to walk it in the rain.我们不得不冒雨而行。Can't you swim it?你游不过去吗?四、在某些 熟语中可将同系宾语省略,如look thanks = look a look of thanksHe looked the thanks he could not express.他眼中 现出言语无法表达的感谢。She left the room, looking daggers at me.她以短 剑相刺的目光望着我,走出了房间。五、最高级形容词后,可以省略同系宾语。The lady was looking her best(look).She sang her sweest(song) to please him.第六部分 一组词组1.all+抽象名词/抽象名词+itself = very + adj.He was all gentleness to her.他对她非常温存。To his superiors, he is humility itself。对于长辈,他极为谦逊。分析:该结构 原来是表示某种性质达到极点的一种说法,有“非常”、“尽管”、“一味”、“尽”的含义,有时甚至可以译为“。。。。的化身”、“。。。。的具体化”。普通复数名词用于“all”之后,也是表达这种概念。He is all smiles.他一味地笑。She is all eyes.她盯着看。I am all anxiety.我真担心。He is all attention.他全神贯注地听着。2.Something (much) of / nothing (little) ofMr.Li is something of a philospher.李先生 略具哲学家风范。Mr. Wu is nothing of a musician.吴先生 全无音乐家的风味。Mr. Lu is very much of a poet.陆先生大有诗人气派。Mr.Liu is little of a scholar.刘先生几无学者风度。分析:此为表示“程度”的形容词短语,有时可 以当作副词翻译。Something of =to some extent(某程度),在问句 和条件句中则用anyting of(略有、多少)。nothing of译作“全无、毫无”。相类似的情况:to be something of = to have something of + 名词+in +代名词He is nothing in ability of an orator = He has nothing of an orator in hisability.他毫无演说家的才能。这类名词的用法,可以处理为副词。He has seen something of life.他略具阅历。他稍阅世。Something of 与something like区别:程度上有差异。something like = something approximateing in characteror amount指数量 或性质略同的事物,又作somewhat(似乎、略微)解释。This is something like a pudding.此物略似布丁。It shaped something like a cigar.其形状略似雪茄

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