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  那个杯子破了

  基础英语讲座(二)知识就是力量 2010-11-19 09:09:01 阅读43 评论0 字号:大中小 订阅

  基础英语讲座[51]


  I think it's my friend.


  I think it's my friend.我想是我的朋友.句中的"it"指人,在英语中,it 还可表示"时间","天气","温度","日期"以及上文中的事物.例如:


  "Who is it?""It's me."


  "是谁呀?""是我."


  It's two o'clock now.


  现在两点钟了.


  "Is it fine today?""Yes,it is."


  "今天天气了吗?""是的,今天天气好."


  It will fall below zero again.


  温度会 再次降到零度以下.


  "What's the date today?""It's May 1."


  "今天是几号?""今天是五月一号."


  I bought a bike last week.It's red.


  我上星 期买了一辆自行车.它是红色的.


  What bad weather!


  What bad weather!今天天气多糟啊!这是一 个省略了部分内容的感叹句,而只留下重要内容.例如:


  What a lovely follow!


  多可爱的花啊!


  Not everyone likes sandwiches.


  Not everyone likes sandwiches.并非所 有的人都喜欢三明治.这是一个部分否定句,表示一 部分人喜欢三明治,一部分 人不喜欢三明治,否定了其中的一部分,所以叫做"部分否定句".both,all,every等词和not 构成的 句子也属于部分否定句.例如:


  We are sorry.Not all of us understand.


  对不起,不是我 们所有的人都能明白.


  Every student is not here.不是每 一个学生都在这儿.


  基础英语讲座[52]


  Where's North Street Hospital,please?


  Where's North Street Hospital,please?请问北街医院在哪儿?这是个问路的句型,本单元 类似的问路句型还有:


  Which is the way to East Park,please?


  请问到 东方公园怎么走?


  How can I get there?


  我怎样去那儿(北街医院)呢?


  回答问路的用语有:


  直接使用祈使句:


  Go along this street,and take the second turning on the right.


  沿着这条街走,在第二 个拐弯处向右拐.


  Walk along this road and turn right.


  沿着这条路走,然后向右拐.


  Go on until you reach the end.


  往前走,一直走到头.


  Go down this street until you reach the second traffic lights.


  沿着这条街道往下走,一直走 到第二个交通灯处.


  告诉对方情况:


  I'm sorry I don't know.


  对不起,我不知道.


  It's about two kilometres there.


  大约有两公里.


  You may ask the policeman.


  你可以问警察.


  Go on until you reach the end.


  Go on until you reach the end.向前走,一直走到尽头.Until 表示"直到…为止",可以作介词,也可作连词.也就是说,until 后面接 一时间短语或者一从句.例如:


  We worked on until eleven yesterday.


  我们昨 天工作到十一点.


  I won’t go to bed until I finish my homework.


  我做完作业才去睡觉.


  He's ill in hospital.


  He's ill in hospital.他生病住院了.In hospital 表示"住院",英语中 有些地方名词前加冠词和不加冠词是有区别的.加冠词 表示具体的地方,不加冠 词表示一种抽象的与地方有关的事情.例如:


  We go to school everyday.


  我们每天去上学.


  An old man came to the school for a talk.


  一位老 人来学校作了一次报告.


  You are ill.You should go to bed now.


  你病了.你应该去睡觉.


  It'll take you about half an hour.


  It'll take you about half an hour.你将要 花半小时的时间去那儿.本句中的take 表示"花费",用于某 事情花费人的时间或者钱财.例如:


  It took us one week to finish the work.


  我们花 费了一周的时间完成了这项工作.


  The bike took my three hundred Yuan.


  这辆自 行车花了我三百元.


  基础英语讲座[53]


  You must be more careful!


  You must be more careful!你一定要小心!这也是一种祈使句,祈使句一般不加主语.但加上主语,反而起一种强调作用.例如:


  You go out!


  你出去.


  You come here!


  你过来!


  You do it a hundred times.


  你做一百遍.


  When the lights are red the traffic must stop.


  When the lights are red the traffic must stop.当红灯亮了,交通停止.这是一 个新的语法现象,句中的when the lights are red 是一时间状语从句,由when引导,表示"当红灯亮了的时候",在句中作状语.能引导 状语从句的还有before(在…之前),after(在…之后).(有关详 细内容请参考 本软件的语法部分)例如:


  When I came into the classroom,I found no stunts there.


  我进教室的时候,没有发现学生在那儿.


  Please turn off the light when you leave the room.


  离开房间的时候,请把电灯关了.


  I can take care of your baby before you come back.


  你回来 之前我可以给你看孩子.


  If you are not careful,a car may hit you.


  If you are not careful,a car may hit you.如果你不小心,汽车就会撞了你.这是一 个带有条件状语的从句,if 引导出一个从句,if 表示"如果",注意从 句的将来时要用一般时代替.(有关条 件状语从句可参考本软件的语法部分).例如:


  If you don't understand,you can go to ask our teacher.


  如果你不明白,你可以 去问一问我们的老师.


  If you want to study well,you must study hard.


  如果你想学习好,你就要努力学习.


  If you jump the queue,other people will not be pleased!


  If you jump the queue,other people will not be pleased!如果你要插队,别人就不高兴.Pleased 是一形容词,表示"高兴",在句中作表语,后接with…或者at…短语,表示"对…感到满意",后接不定式,表示"乐于干…".例如:


  My teacher is pleased with my homework.


  我的老 师对我的作业满意.


  We were pleased when we heard the good news.


  我们听到消息很高兴.


  He is pleased to help others.


  他乐于帮助别人.


  Everyone laughed at the woman's mistake.


  Everyone laughed at the woman's mistake.大家都 对这位妇女的差错笑了.Laugh at…表示"因…有趣而发笑",或"嘲笑…".例如:


  We all laugh at his funny story.


  我们都 对他的故事有趣而发笑.


  Don't laugh at him.It's no polite.


  别嘲笑他,这不礼貌.


  基础英语讲座[54]


  Can you come and play football?


  Can you come and play football?你能来参加踢足球吗?can 是情态动词,表示"能",情态动词有shall(将),will(将),can(能),could(能),may(可以),must(必须),have to(不得不)等.情态动 词只能和动词原形一起使用,构成谓语部分.情态动词加not 构成句子的否定式,情态动词提到主语前,构成疑问句(有关详 细内容请参考 本软件的语法部分).例如:


  You can take the books out of the classroom.


  你们可 以把书带出教室.


  "May I come in?""Yes,please."


  "我可以进来吗?""可以,请吧."


  You mustn't play football in the street.


  你不能 在街道上踢足球.


  I'm sorry.I have to go now.


  对不起,我得走了.


  I have to tidy my room.


  I have to tidy my room.我得打扫房间.Have to 是情态动词,表示"不得不""必须"强调客观条件的需要,而情态动词must 也表示"必须"但则重 于主观认为的必要性.例如:


  I feel ill,I have to see a doctor.


  我病了,我得去看大夫.


  You must study hard if you want to study well.


  如果你想学习好,你就得努力学习.


  Why don't you come and play volleyball instead?


  Why don't you come and play volleyball instead?你为什 么不来打排球呢?instead 是一副词,表示"代替","顶替",常放在句尾.例如:


  He is ill now,let me do it instead.


  他病了,让我来干吧.


  That glass is broken,use this one instead.


  那个杯子破了,用这个吧.


  I have to sit down and rest every five minutes.


  I have to sit down and rest every five minutes.每隔五分钟,我就要 坐下来休息休息.Every five minutes 表示"每隔五分钟",every 后面可 接其它时间短语.例如:


  I often go shopping every five days.


  我经常 每五天去买一次东西.


  We clean the classroom very two days.


  我们每 两天打扫一次教室.


  基础英语讲座[55]


  It's more interesting!


  It's more interesting!(那儿)非常有趣.Interesting 是一形容词词,在这儿作表语.表示"有趣",例如:


  The film is very interesting.


  电影非常有趣.


  There is nothing interesting in this book.


  这本书 没什么有趣的东西.


  And we've never been there before!


  And we've never been there before!我们以 前从没去过那儿.这是一完成时句型,到初三才学,表示以前没有去过,现在的 结果是没有去过,有关动 词的一般完成时可以看一看本软件的语法部分的动词时态.


  "Have you been there before?""Yes,I have been there."


  "你去过那儿吗?""是的,我去过那儿."


  Bring the picnic basket up here,under this big tree.


  Bring the picnic basket up here,…把野餐篮子拿来,放在这棵大树下.Bring …up here 表示"把…拿来".例如:


  Please bring your books up here.


  请把你们的书拿来.


  We must keep it cool.


  We must keep it cool.我们必须要让饭晾着.Cool 在本句中是形容词,作宾补,表示"凉爽","凉快".例如:


  I feel the water cool.


  我感水是凉爽的.


  We're alone here.


  We're alone here.我们在这儿没别人,就我们自己.Alone 是形容词,在句中可作表语,或者宾补.表示"单独的","独自一人的"例如:


  He is alone in the classroom.


  他一人在教室里.


  We found the little girl alone in the garden.


  我们发 现小女孩一人在花园里.


  The picnic basket was no longer under the tree.


  The picnic basket was no longer under the tree.野餐篮 子不再在树底下了.No longer 表示"不再",在句中 常放在实义动词的前面,系动词,情态动 词和助动词的后面.例如:


  I can no longer come here.


  我再也不能来这儿了.


  He is no longer a little boy.


  他再也不是小孩子了.


  基础英语讲座[56]


  反身代词的用法:


  反身代词有myself(我自己),yourself(你自己),himself(他自己),herself(她自己),itself(它自己),ourselves(我们自己),yourselves(你们自己),themselves(他们自己).反身代 词有两个主要作用.第一可 以作动词宾语或者介词宾语.第二可 以放在主语和宾语的后面起强调作用.例如:


  Enjoy yourself,please.


  好好享受吧.


  He is old enough;he can do it by himself.


  他已经大了,他能自己干了.


  She herself cleaned the classroom this morning.


  今天早上,她自己打扫了教室.


  She's falling off her bike.


  She's falling off her bike.她从自 行车上摔了下来.Off 具有"离开"的含义,fall of…表示"从…上摔下来"例如:


  He fell of the window,and he hurt himself badly.


  Be careful!Don't fall off the tree.


  小心,别从树上摔下来.


  She taught herself.


  She taught herself.她自学的.Teach oneself…表示"自学…",但是要表示"教某人学…"则是"teach somebody something".例如:


  They teach themselves Chinese.


  他们自学中文.


  Do you teach yourself English?


  你自学英语吗?


  I teach my students English.


  我教我的学生英语.


  I can buy myself lots of good things.


  I can buy myself lots of good things.我可以 给我买好多的东西.Buy sb.sth.表示"给某人买东西".也可以写成buy sth.for sb.例如:


  My father bought me red bike.


  我父亲 给我买了辆红色的自行车.


  I'm going to buy some apples for my daughter.


  我去给 我女儿买些苹果.


  Not everybody in the USA is rich.


  Not everybody in the USA is rich.在美国 不是每个人都是富有的.这是一 个部分否定句型.Not 和everybody 在一起构成"部分否定句".例如:


  All of us are not in the classroom.


  我们不都在教室里.


  基础英语讲座[57]


  Find out the answer to this question.


  Find out the answer to this question.找出问题的答案来,answer to…表示"…的答案"例如:


  I'm sorry I can't get the answer to this problem.


  对不起,我找不 出问题的答案来.


  How did Ling Feng make the baby stop crying?


  How did Ling Feng make the baby stop crying?林峰是 怎样让婴儿不哭的呢?make sb.do sth.表示"让某人做某事",注意词组中的do 是省略了to 的不定式.Stop 表示"停止",后接动名词表示"停止某项活动",后接不定式表示"停下来去做某项活动".例如:


  Let's stop working now.


  我们现在停止干活吧.


  He stopped to have a rest.


  他停下来休息休息.


  She looked worried.


  She looked worried.她看起来很着急.Worried 是形容词,表示"烦恼的","担忧的".worry 是动词.表示"担心","烦恼".例如:


  He is worried about his work.


  他担心他的工作.


  Don't worry me.I'm OK.


  别担心我,我没事.


  I never worry about my bike.


  我从没 有担心过我的自行车.


  I can't leave her by herself.


  I can't leave her by herself.我不能留下她一个人.Leave 表示"使…处于…","留下","离开".例如:


  Leave my book in my desk.


  把书放 在我的桌子里边.


  Could I leave the windows open?


  我可以把窗户打开吗?


  We are going to leave Taiyuan for Qingdao.


  我们将 离开太原到青岛.


  She looked at me and cried harder and harder.


  She looked at me and cried harder and harder.她看着 我并且哭得越来越厉害.Harder and harder 越来越厉害.英语中,两个用and 连接的 形容词比较级或者副词比较级表示"越来越…".例如:


  It's getting warmer and warmer.


  天气是越来越暧和了.


  Our lessons are getting harder and harder.


  我们的课越来越难了.


  It rains heavier and heavier.


  雨下的越来越大了.


  基础英语讲座[58]


  You needn't come until six.


  You needn't come until six.你在六点来.Need 可以作实义动词,也可以作情态动词,表示"需要".本句是情态动词,needn't 表示"不必".(有关详 细解释请参考 本软件的语法部分).例如:


  Need I come early next time?


  要我早点来吗?


  We need your help.


  我们需要你的帮助.


  Why did the monkey laugh in the end?


  Why did the monkey laugh in the end?最终,猴子为什么能笑了.In the end 表示"最终","终于".同at last"最后才"意思一样.例如:


  He passed the exam in the end.


  他最后考试及格了.


  We find his home at last.


  我们最 后找到他的家了.


  "What!"shouted the tiger.


  "What!"shouted the tiger."什么!"老虎喊到.Shout 是一动词,表示"大声说话""呼喊"用于引 起他人注意而提高声音的呼喊或讲话.Cry 是它的同义词,但表示因疼痛,恐惧,惊奇而 大声呼喊或尖声叫喊.例如:


  She is shouting her child's name to look for him.


  她呼喊 者她的孩子的名字找他.


  "Police!Drop the gun."He shouted.


  他大声喊到"我是警察,放下枪."

  基础英语讲座[59]


  Glad to see you again.


  Glad to see you again.再次见到你我很高兴.Glad 表示"高兴",是I'glad的缩写形式.类似这样的句了还有:


  Nice to meet you.


  见到你很高兴.


  They are both fine,too.


  They are both fine,too.他们也都很好.Both 表示"两者都"常和动词连用,一般应放在系动词,助动词 或情态动词的后面和行为动词的后面.也可作定语或同位语.例如:


  They are both my students.


  他们两 人都是我的学生.


  We are both cleaning the classroom.


  我们俩 人都在打扫教室.


  You must both finish the homework tonight.


  你们俩 人今晚必须完成作业.


  The little boys both run away.


  俩个小男孩都跑了.


  I like both the pictures.


  俩张图片我都喜欢.


  They both are in the classroom.


  他们俩人都在教室.


  That's the bell.


  That's the bell.铃响了.这是一句课堂用语.表示铃响了,该上(下)课了,也可以说成There goes the bell.都是同样的意思.例如:


  That's the bell.We'd better hurry up.


  铃响了,我们得赶紧点.


  There goes the bell.That's all for our class.


  铃响了,我们的课就到这里.


  Today is Thursday,September 10th,Teacher's Day.


  Today is Thursday,September 10th,Teacher's Day.今天是九月十号,星期四,教师节.节日是专有名词,前面不带冠词.例如:


  New Year's Day.元旦


  National Day.国庆节.


  Children's day.儿童节.


  Here are some flowers for you,with our best wishes.


  Here are some flowers for you,with our best wishes.这是送给你的鲜花,并向您 致以最良好的祝愿.向某人 表示祝愿可用下列方式:


  Happy New Year to you.


  (祝你)新年好.


  Happy birthday to you.(祝你)生日快乐.


  Best wishes to you.


  向你致 以最良好的祝愿.


  I wish you a happy New Year.


  祝你新年愉快.


  I hope you have a good time.


  我希望你们玩得痛快.


  Read his talk below and find out:


  Read his talk below and find out:听下面他的谈话内容,并找出来…find out 表示"弄清楚","查明"可接名词或句子.Find 本身则是"找到","认为","觉得"的意思.例如:


  I find my book in the sports ground.


  我在操 场上找到了我的书.


  I find it important to study English well first.


  我发现 先学好英语是很重要的.


  I can't find it out which answer is right.


  我确定 不了哪一个答案是对的.


  基础英语讲座[60]


  Lucy ran faster than Meimei.


  Lucy ran faster than Meimei.露西比梅梅跑得快.这是一 个副词的比较级句型.句中的faster是fast的比较级形式.表示"比较快".英语副 词同形容词一样,也有比 较级和最高级形式,用法上也基本一样,比较级要有than ,最高级 要有比较的范围.(详细内 容请参考 本软件的语法部分)例如:


  He works hard.I work harder then he works.


  他工作努力,我比他工作更努力.


  Lucy ran fastest of all.


  露西跑的最快.


  Which sport are you in today?


  Which sport are you in today?你今天参加什么运动.Be in…表示"参与…".例如:


  We are in collecting stamp(集邮).


  我们参加集邮.


  Which two classes were in front?


  Which two classes were in front?哪两个班在前面?In front(of…)表示"在…前面"指在某 一范围的整体前面,而in the front of意思是"在某一 范围的内部的前面".例如:


  There is a blackboard in the front of the classroom.


  教室的 前面有一块黑板.


  There are three old trees in our classroom.


  我们的 教室前面有三棵老树.


  All the runners got ready to run.


  All the runners got ready to run.所有的 参赛者都准备好了赛跑.Get ready to do 表示"做好干…的准备",也可写成be ready to do,但前者强调行为,后者强调状态.它们后 面的不定式也可写成for 介词短语.例如:


  I get ready to mend my bike.


  我准备 好要修理我的自行车.


  I'm ready to try it again.


  我准备好了再试一次.


  Are you ready for supper?


  你准备好晚饭了.


  He began to catch up with Jim.


  He began to catch up with Jim.他开始赶上了吉姆.Catch up with 赶上….例如:


  Meimei studies very well,I'll catch up with her.


  梅梅学习很好,我要赶上她.


  Let's have a rest.I can't really catch up with you.


  让我们休息休息,我确实赶不上你.


  But he quickly got up and went on running.


  But he quickly got up and went on running.但他很快站起来,继续往前跑.Go on doing 表示"继续做某事"也可以写成go on with…,但后面接名词.例如:


  Go on reading,please.


  请接着读课文.


  It is very late,but they go on with their work.


  已经很迟了,但他们 继续干着他们的活.


  基础英语讲座[61]


  Do you like learning a foreign language?


  Do you like learning a foreign language?你喜欢学习外语吗?like doing 表示"喜欢干…",有关like 的词组还有like to do (喜欢干…),like sb.to do(希望某人干…),do…like this(象这样的干…),look like(看起来象).例如:


  I like swimming.


  我喜欢游泳.


  He likes to help others.


  他喜欢帮助别人.


  I like my students to study English well.


  我希望 我的学生学好英语.


  Read the text like this.


  这样读课文.


  He looks like his father.


  他看起来象他的父亲.


  What does this word mean?


  What does this word mean?这个单词是什么意思?mean 表示"意思是""含义是",可以指人的言论行为,也可以词语等.例如:


  What do you mean by that?


  你那是什么意思?


  What does this text mean?


  这一课文是什么意思?


  She came into class as usual.


  She came into class as usual.她象平 常一样进了教室.As usual表示"照常",在句中作状语.例如:


  I got up at six yesterday as usual.


  我昨天 象往常一样六点钟起床.


  You can do it as usual.


  你可以象往常一样干.


  It was not as clean as usual.


  It was not as clean as usual.卫生不 象往常一样干净.As …as 表示"同…一样…"这是一 个对等的比较句型,第一个as 后面跟形容词或副词,第二个as 后面跟比较的内容.例如:


  This work is as hard as that one.


  这个工 作和那个工作一样难.


  Lucy runs as fast as Jim does.


  露西和 吉姆跑的一样快.


  English is not as difficult as maths.


  英语没有数学难.


  Everyone is at school today except Lin Tao.


  Everyone is at school today except Lin Tao.今天除 过林涛大家都到校了.Except 表示"除…之外".例如:


  We go to school everyday except Sunday.


  除星期天外,我们天天上学.


  I like all of them except this one.


  除这一个外,剩下的我都喜欢.


  I prefer science.


  I prefer science.我喜欢科学.Prefer 表示"喜欢",prefer …to…表示"比较喜欢…而不喜欢…",prefer 后面的 是较喜欢的内容.例如:


  I prefer English.


  我喜欢英语.


  I prefer apples to pears.


  我喜欢 苹果而不太喜欢梨.


  基础英语讲座[62]


  What are they drawing?


  What are they drawing?他们在画什么?drawing 是draw 的分词形式,表示"画","拉",draw 是一个不规则动词,过去式是drew .例如:


  The boy can draw a house.


  小孩会画房子.


  Who drew the picture on the blackboard?


  谁在黑板上画的画儿.


  I'm trying to draw a horse.


  I'm trying to draw a horse.我在试图画一匹马.Try to do 表示"努力去做".例如:


  I'll try to study Chinese well.


  我要尽力学好中文.


  Are you trying to mend you kite?


  你在试 图修好你的风筝吗?


  Please don't play with my chalk.


  Please don't play with my chalk.请不要玩粉笔.Play with 表示"玩耍",play 后面直 接跟一些运动球类或者乐器类表示参加这种运动或演奏这种乐器.


  Don't play with fire.


  不要玩火.


  We are going to play basketball in the afternoon.


  今天下 午我们要去打蓝球.


  The little girl plays piano(钢琴)very well.


  小女孩 钢琴演奏得很好.


  What was Li Lei drawing when the teacher came in?


  What was Li Leo drawing when the teacher came in?老师进来时,林涛正在画什么?was drawing 是过去进行时.表示过 去某一时间正在干某事,其构成形式是was(were)+现在分词.When …表示"当…时候",when 在本句中起连词作用,引导出 一个时间状语从句.例如:


  I was reading a book at ten o'clock last night.


  昨天晚 上十点钟我正在读书.


  What were you doing when I called you?

  昨天我给你打电话的时候,你在干什么?


  He found it very difficult to get to sleep.


  He found it very difficult to get to sleep.他觉得很难入睡.句中的"find it +形容词+不定式"表示"发现干 某事怎么怎么样".不定式 的内容就是指干某事的内容,但写在后面,而用it 代替不 定式写在动词的后面,形容词作it 补语.例如:


  I find it hard to finish the work today.


  我发现 今天难于完成工作.


  I feel it very happy to work with you.


  我感觉 和你一起工作很幸福.


  I think it important to have a walk after supper.


  我觉得 晚饭后散步很重要.


  He was just falling asleep when there was a loud knock at the door.


  He was just falling asleep when there was a loud knock at the door.他刚要入睡,突然就有人大声敲门.was(were)doing …when(从句)….表示过 去某一动作正在进行时,另一动作就开始了.例如:


  I was walking in the street when I met a friend of mine.


  我正在街上散步,这时就碰见一位朋友.


  基础英语讲座[63]


  Were the Blacks watching TV last night?


  Were the Blacks watching TV last night?布莱克 一家人昨晚看电视了吗?在人的姓前用定冠词,后面加s ,指本人 的全家或其夫妇两人.例如:


  The Smiths are my good friends.


  史密斯 一家人是我的好朋友.


  What happened?


  What happened?发生什么事情了?happen 表示"发生",是一不及物动词,发生的 内容要写在动词的前面,作句子的主语,这一点 同中文表达方法不一样,中文把 发生的内容写在动词的后面.例如:


  An accident happened last night.


  昨天晚 上发生了一场事故.


  Nothing happened later.


  后来再 没发生什么事情.


  A woman saw it happen when she was walking past.


  A woman saw it happen when she was walking past.一位妇女走过的时候,看到了(钢笔掉到地上)saw it happen "看到事情发生",happen 是省略了to 的动词不定式,因saw 是感观动词,所以to 要省略,类似动词还有watch,杭州翻译公司,hear,feel.例如:


  I see him go into the car.


  我看见他进了汽车.


  I feel it move slowly.


  我感到它慢慢地动呢.


  It was carrying some large bags of rice.


  It was carrying some large bags of rice.它(汽车)拉了几袋子大米.Carry 表示"携带",没有方向性.类似的词还有bring,take,get.其中bring表示从别处"带来"或"拿来".take表示"带走""拿走".get表示"去拿来".例如:


  I can't carry the heavy box.


  我搬不动箱子.


  Bring the exercise books here tomorrow.


  明天把作业本带来.


  You can take the book out of the library.


  你可以 把书带出图书馆.


  Can you go and get some water for us.


  你能去 给我们打点水吗?


  Let's move that bag,or there may be an accident.


  Let's move that bag,or there may be an accident.让我们 移开那袋子大米,否则的话,会出事故的.Or 表示"否则",常常引 出一个结果状语从句.例如:


  Let's hurry up,or we may be late again.


  我们快一点吧,否则的话,我们又要迟到了.


  You'd better study hard,or you'd not pass the exam.


  你最好努力学习,否则的 话你考试不及格.


  It's nice of you.


  It's nice of you.你真是太好了.说明人是好心人,后面可接动词不定式,例如:


  It's nice of you to come to help us.


  你来帮 助我们真是太好了.(强调人好)


  It's good for you to clean the classroom.


  你把教室给打扫了,很好.(强调打扫教室好)


  With the medicine box under her arm,Miss Zhao hurried off to look after the man.


  With the medicine box under her arm,Miss Zhao hurried off to look after the man.赵小姐 挎着药箱匆匆去护理那个人了.With +名词+方位介词短语.表示动 词含义之外的另一伴随情况,在句中作状语.例如:


  He came in with a cup of water in his hand.


  他拿着一杯水进来了.


  Miss Gao teaches us English with smiles on her face.


  高小组 面带笑容给我们讲英语课.


  基础英语讲座[64]


  Have you got …?


  Have you got …?你有…?此句型 形式上是现在完成时,但实际上同have 的含义一样.是同一 意思的两种表达方法.例如:


  I have an English book.


  我有一本英语书.


  I have got a new bike.


  我有一辆新自行车.


  Have you a red pen?


  你有红钢笔吗?


  Have you got a piece of paper?


  你有一张纸吗


  I've lost my science book.Have you seen it anywhere?


  I’ve lost my science book.Have you seen it anywhere?我丢了我的科技书.你在哪儿看见了它吗?这是一 个新的语法项目.一般现在完成时.表示对 现在有影响的发生在过去的动作.也就是说,现在的结果是"…怎么样了",或者"…怎么样过".它的构成形式是"have +动词的分词形式".(请参考 本软件的语法部分).例如:


  I have repaired my bike.


  我修好了我的自行车.


  "Have you found your bike?""Yes,I have."


  "你找到 了你的自行车了吗?""是的,我找到了."


  I haven't seen this film.


  我没看过这场电影.


  You must always return your library book on time!


  You must always return your library book on time!你总是 要准时归还图书馆的书.Return 是一动词,作为不及物动词,表示"回到"某处",相当于come back,作为及物动词,表示"归还…",相当于give back.例如:


  He'll return home tomorrow morning.


  他明天早上就返回家.


  Does your sister return to the school today.


  你妹妹 今天要返回学校吗?


  I'm going to the library to return the books.


  我要到图书馆还书.


  Why don't you return my dictionary?


  为什么 你不返我的词典.


  If you've lost it,you must pay for it.


  If you've lost it,you must pay for it.如果你丢了的话,你就得赔钱.If 表示"如果",在这儿 引出一个表示条件的从句.例如:


  If it is fine today,I'll go to the shop.


  如果今天天气好的话,我就去商店.


  Please be more careful from now on.


  Please be more careful from now on.过后请多加小心.From now on.表示"从现在起".作时间状语.例如:


  We must study hard from now on.


  我们必 须从现在起努力学习.


  You can work with him from now on.


  从现在起,你可以 和在他一起工作.


  基础英语讲座[65]


  本单元是总复习:应熟记 已经学过的下列内容:


  What ware you doing yesterday afternoon?


  What were you doing yesterday afternoon?你昨天晚上在干什么?过去正 在进行时一般要有能表达过去时间的状语从句.例如:


  Yesterday evening.昨天晚上.


  At noon last Sunday.上一星期天中午.


  Last Saturday evening.上一星期六的晚上.


  What is the youngest person in your class?


  What is the youngest person in your class?你们班谁最年青?最高级形式要有冠词the ,一般形 容词的最高级形式是在原形后面加est.多音节 的形容词则在前面加一单词,most.例如:


  He is the tallest in the class.


  他是全 班学生中最高的.


  This is the most popular piece of music at the moment?


  这是一 曲目前最流行的音乐.


  Science is not so popular as Chinese.


  Science is not so popular as Chinese.科学没有汉语流行.Not so …as 表示"同…不一样…",as…as 表示"同…一样".例如:


  This book is not so cheap as that one.


  这本书 不比那本书便宜.


  Our classroom is as large as their classroom.


  我们的 教室与他们的教室一样大.


  When she got to the shop,she bought all the things on the list.


  When she got to the shop,she bought all the things on the list.当她来 到了商店的时候,她就照着纸条买东西.When引导出 一个时间状语从句,表示"当…时候".例如:


  When I got home yesterday evening,it was eleven o'clock.


  昨晚我回家的时候,已是十一点钟了.


  Please turn off the light when you leave the classroom.


  离开教室的时候,请把灯关掉.


  What have you done with the library book?


  What have you done with the library book?你拿图 书馆的书干什么?with 表示"使用…","运用…",在句中作状语.例如:


  What have you done with the bike?


  你用自行车干什么?


  What have you done with the pen?


  你拿钢笔干什么?


  基础英语讲座[66]


  Have you ever been to West Hill Farm?


  Have you ever been to West Hill Farm?你去过西山农场吗?have been to 表示"到过","去过",意思是曾去过某处,现在不在那儿,注意与have gone to …的区别,后者表示"去了",意思是已经去了某地,现在不在这儿.例如:


  We have been to Beijing.


  我们去过北京.


  Sorry,she is not here;she has gone to the library.


  对不起,她不在这儿,她去了图书馆.


  I've seen them before.


  I've seen them before.我以前见过它们.Before 表示"以前",同ago 含义一样.但前者可单独作用,可用于完成式,后者必 须与表示时间段的短语连用,可用于过去式.例如:


  I have known it before.


  我以前就知道.


  I haven't been to America before?


  我以前没有去过美国.


  I came here two weeks ago.


  两周前我来到这儿的.


  Can I borrow a pan,please?


  Can I borrow a pan,please?请借给我一枝钢笔吗?borrow 表示"借"意思从别处借回,lend 也是"借",意思是借给别人.例如:


  May I borrow your bike today?


  我能借 一下你的自行车吗?


  I borrowed a book from the library.


  我从图 书馆借了一本书.


  Can you lend me a pen?


  你能借我一枝钢笔吗?


  I've never heard of that before!


  I've never heard of that before!我从来没有听说过(这样的事).Hear of 表示"听说"后面接名词或代词.如果没有of 就可接从句.例如:


  I heard that he is a worker.


  我听说他是一个工人.


  Have you heard of the student called Wang Hua?


  听说过 一个叫做王华的学生吗?


  Dead?Pans can't die!


  Dead?Pans can't die!死啦?钢笔不会死的.Dead 和die 都是死的意思,但die 是动词,指的是动作.Dead 是形容词,指的是状态.注意die 不能用 于带有时间短语的完成时.例如:


  This little animal died yesterday.


  这个小动物昨天死的.


  The dog has already been dead.


  狗已经死了.


  He is dead.


  他死了.


  基础英语讲座[67]


  I've been here for just over two years.


  I've been here for just over two years.我来这 儿已经两年多了.For 表示"有…时间了",用于完成时,指某个 动作或者情况到现在为止已持续了多长时间了.例如:


  We have learned English for three hours.


  我们已 经学了三年的英语.


  I have worked in this factory for twenty years.


  我在这 个工厂工作了有二十年了.


  So she's been at this school since September?


  So she's been at this school since September?那麽,她从九 月份来到这所学校的?since 表示"从…以来",同for 一样,也用于完成时,指某个 动作或者情况从过去某一时间开始持续到现在.例如:


  I have lived here since I was born.


  从我出 生我就住在这儿.


  We haven't met him since last year.


  从去年 我们就没有见过他.


  The glasses keep their eyes safe.


  The glasses keep their eyes safe.这种眼 镜是保护他们的眼睛的.Keep their eyes safe 表示"保护他们的眼睛(使他们 的眼睛安全不受伤害)",safe 意思是"安全",在词组中,作eyes 的宾补.例如:


  The students can't keep the boy quiet.


  这位学 生不能让小孩安静下来.


  We should keep our classroom clean.


  我们应 使我们的教室保持干净.


  My house is about twenty minutes by bike.


  My house is about twenty minutes by bike.我家离 这儿骑自行车大约有二十分钟.这是一 种用某种交通工具需多长时间的才能到达的表示距离的方法,前面写时间,后面写使用交通工具.例如:


  Our school is about ten minutes by bus.


  我们的 学校骑车十分钟就到.


  It's five minutes away on foot.


  步行有五分钟的路程.


  The place I live is about one week by bus from lasha.


  我住的 地方离拉萨坐车需一周的路程.


  基础英语讲座[68]


  Could I speak to the headmaster,please?


  Could I speak to the headmaster,please?这是一 句打电话的用语,表示"我要找校长说话",有关常 用的打电话用语可有许多,例如:


  Who's that(speaking)?


  请问你是谁?


  May I speak to Lucy,杭州翻译,please?


  我要找露西.

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