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上下文 的根本思想而且其译文也能被人所承受

杭州翻译依据全 国硕士研讨生统一考试英语考试大纲规则,考研翻译“主要考 察考生精确了解内容或构造复杂的英语资料的才能。请求考生阅读一篇约400词的文章,并将其中5个划线局部(约150词)译成汉语,请求译文精确、完好、通畅。考生在答题卡2上作答。” 其测试 的重点是考生对英语的了解才能及汉语表达才能,有关翻 译局部的规则是“能将普 通难度的英语短文译成汉语,了解根本正确,译文达意”。这就需 求考生既要有比拟好的英语根底,还要有 扎实的汉语功底。翻译是 一门言语的艺术,是言语之间的转换,是在精 确了解的根底上用一种言语来忠实的表达另外一种言语;它是一 项对综合才能请求比拟高的题型,它不只 请求学生对词汇、语法、语篇以 及文化等有较好的控制,还请求 学生有着很强的组词成句、组句成段的才能。但是其 在评分时有适宜规范和可承受的规范,也就是说只需考生所翻译的句子合适于上下文 的根本思想而且其译文也能被人所承受,普通能 够断定这个句子的翻译契合请求。

 

重磅阅读

由于翻 译局部的句型构造和阅读了解的较难句型根本相似,考试重点一模一样,为了让 大家更好的了解阅读了解真题文章,进步做题正确率,如今把 考研翻译办法停止归结总结,以便大家温习参考。

 

  被动语态翻译法

  1) 变为汉语的主动方式。

  Eg:

  It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.这种说 法从一开端就将讨论引向两个极端,它使人 们以为应该这样看待动物:要么像 看待人类本身一样关切谅解,要么完整冷漠无情。

  2) 译成具 有被动意义的汉语构造。

  Eg:

  For all the help this computer may provide, it should not be seen as a substitute for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.虽然计 算机能够提供那么多的协助,它却不 应该被看作是根本的思想和推理技巧的替代物。

  Eg:

  How well the predictions will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted.这些预 测将在多大水平上为后来的表现所证明取决于所用信息的数量、牢靠水平、适合水 平以及用来解释这些信息的技巧与才智。

  3) 添加“人们”、“大家”等恰当 的词做汉语译文的主语。

  Eg:

  And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training.许多人 以为普通人的思想活动基本无法和科学家的思想过程想比拟,他们并 以为这些思想过程必需经过某中特地锻炼才干控制。

  Eg:

  During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.在这种转变中,历史学家研讨历史时,那些解 释新史料的新办法充实了传统的历史研讨办法。

  分译法

  英语长句子比拟多,汉语句 子相对而言比拟短。在翻译 时能够改动原文构造,把原文 的某个成分从原来的构造中别离出来,译成一个独立成分、从句或并列分句。

  Eg: It has been rightly stated that this situation is a threat to international security.这个局 势对国际平安是个要挟,这样的 说法是完整正确的。

  合译法

  和分译法不同,合译法 是将不同的句子成分组合在一同,使其更 契合汉语的表达办法。Eg:

  Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools.他们说 科学的开展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼识,不如说 源于改良了的技术和工具等等更为普遍的东西。(将英语 的一个句子构造翻译成一个词组)

  Eg:

  When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind’s instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.这种反响并不错,这是人 类用道德观念停止推理的本能在起作用。这种本能应得到鼓舞,而不是遭到讪笑。(When that happens, it is not a mistake原来是两个句子,如今组 合成一个简约的汉语句子。)

  次第调整法

  普通来说,翻译时 应该依照句子原来的次第停止,但由于 英汉两种言语中定语、状语和 一些其他成分的位置不完整相同,翻译时 需求做一定的调整(例如采用倒译法),使其更 契合汉语的习气。

  Eg:

  The true measure of the danger is represented by the hazards we will encounter if we enter the new age of technology without first evaluating our responsibility to environment.假如我 们进入了技术新时期而不首先估价我们对环境所负的义务,我们将遇到公害,这些公 害将标明风险真正到达了什么水平。

  Eg:

  That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.这种理论的中心是,我们的 环境同我们的才干、性格特 征和行为即便有什么关系的话,也是微乎其微的。(原来的谓语,在译文 中变成了在前的主语。)

 

  反译法

  一个问 题有时能够从不同的角度来解释阐明。有些句 子英语是从正面说的,汉语能 够从背面来解释。

  1)否认译成肯定。

  Eg:

  I never passed the theatre but I thought of his last performance.每一次经过那家剧院,我都会 想起他的最后一次演出。

  Eg:

  Hardly a month goes by without word of another survey revealing new depths of scientific illiteracy among U.S. citizens.美国公 民科盲日益严重,这种调 查报告简直月月都有。(双重否认)

  2)肯定译成否认。

  Eg:

  Everyone has the right to be free from hunger.人人有不挨饿的权益。

  Eg:

  This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.这种窘 境将是肯定无疑的,[来源:考研加油绽]由于能 源的匮乏使农业无法以高能量耗费、投入少 数农民就可能取得高产的美国耕种方式继续下去了。

  Eg:

  The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, critics divert attention from the fault that lies with ill-informed or incompetent users.把规范 化测试作为鞭挞目的是错误的,由于在 鞭挞这类测试时,批判者 不思索其弊病来自人们对测试不甚理解或运用不当。

  几种特 殊否认句式的翻译法

  “no more…than翻译成汉语“和……一样不”

  Eg:

  The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.脏和胃一样不能思想,都受大脑支配。

  Eg:

  There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.他们没 有理由限定你吃几维生素,就好像 他们不能限定你喝几水一样。

  “not so much …as”翻译成“与其说……,不如说……”

  Eg:

  It was not so much the many blows he received as the lack of fighting spirit that led to his losing the game.与其说 他输了竞赛是屡次被击中,不如说 是本人缺乏斗志。

  Eg:

  There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry.所谓办 法论是指普通的历史研讨中的特有概念,还是指 历史研讨中各个详细范畴运用的研讨手腕,人们对此意见不一。

  Eg:

  He is the last person I want to see in the world.他是这 个世界上我最不愿意见到的人。

  定语从句翻译法

  1)合译法:把定语 从句放在被修饰的词语之前,从而将 英语复合句翻译成汉语单句。

  Eg:

  Congress made public a survey of human rights in 105 countries that receive U.S. aid.国会发 布了关于承受美国援助的105个国度的****状况调查报告。

  2)分译法:依据定 语从句的不同状况,我们能 够将其翻译成并列分句、其它从句或独立句等。

  Eg:

  Anyone who stops absorbing new knowledge is certain to lag behind.任何人 假如中止汲取新学问,就肯定会落后。(译为条件状语从句)

  The strike would prevent the docking of ocean steamships which require assistance of tugboats.罢工会 使远洋航船不能靠岸,由于他 们需求拖船的协助。(译成缘由状语从句)

  A geological prospecting engineer who had made a spectral analysis of ores discovered a new open-cut coalmine.一位地 质勘探工程师对光谱停止了剖析之后,发现了新的露天煤矿。(译为时间状语构造)

  The delivery of public services has tended to be an area where we decorate an obsolete process with technology.公共效 劳的提供方式已趋陈旧,这正是 我们必需采用技术加以配备的范畴。(译为并列分句)

  We now live in a very new economy, a service economy, where relationships are becoming more important than physical products.如今我 们正生活于一种全新的经济,即效劳性经济中,各种关 系越来越比物质产品更为重要。(译为并列分句)

  主语从句翻译法

  1)以that, what, who, where, whatever等代词 引导的主语从句,能够将从句翻译成“的”字构造。

  Eg:  It is important that science and technology be pushed forward as quickly as possible.重要的 是要把科学技术搞上去。

  Whoever breaks the law will be punished.但凡犯 法的人都要遭到法律的制裁。(主语从 句与主句合译成简单句,按次第译出)

  2)也能够译成“主-谓-宾”构造,从句自 身做句子的主语,其他局 部按原文次第译出。

  Eg:

  Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa(反之)often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force.政府终 究是以牺牲对技术的经费投入来增加对纯理论科学的经费投入,还是相反,这常常 取决于把哪一方看作是驱动的力气。

  3)分译法:把原来 的状语从句从整体构造中别离出来,译成另 一个相对独立得单句。

  Eg:

  It has been rightly stated that this situation is a threat to international security.这个局 势对国际平安是个要挟,这样的 说法是完整正确的。(It是方式主语,that this situation is a threat to international security是真正的宾语)

 

  宾语从句翻译法

  由that, what, how, where等词引 导的宾语从句普通依照原文次第翻译,即顺译法。

  Eg:

  Scientists have reason to think that a man can put up with far more radiation than 0.1 rem without being damaged.科学家 们有理由以为人能够忍耐远超越0.1雷姆的 辐射而不受伤害。

  Eg:

  We wish to inform you that we specialize in the export of Chinese textiles and shall be glad to enter into business relations with you on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.我公司 特地办理中国纺织品出口业务,并愿在 对等互利的根底上同贵公司树立业务关系。

  状语从句翻译法

  1)顺译法:依照原文次第翻译。

  Eg:

  If the negotiations between the rich nations and the poor nations make headway, it is intended that a ministerial session in December should be arranged.假如富 国和穷国之间的会谈取得停顿的话,就打算在12月份布 置召开部长级会议。

  2)逆译法:把位于 句末的从句放在句首。

  Eg:

  Obviously, there would be no point in investing in a computer if you had to check all its answers, but people should also rely on their own internal computers and check the machine when they have the feeling that something has gone wrong.显然,假如计 算机给出的全部答案均需求核对,花钱买 计算机就毫无意义。不过,人们也 应该信任本身内部的计算才能,在以为 计算机有问题时停止复查。

  3)分译法:有时也 能够译为并列句。

  Eg: Electricity is such an important energy that modern industry couldn’t develop without it.电是一 种十分重要的能量,没有它,现代化 工业就不能开展。(原文由such…that…引导的 结果状语从句译为汉语的并列句)

  表语从句翻译法

  大局部 状况下能够采用顺译法,间或也能够用逆译法。

  Eg:

  My point is that the frequent complaint of one generation about the one immediately following it is inevitable.我的观 念是一代人经常埋怨下一代人是不可防止的。(顺译法)

  His view of the press was that the reporters were either for him or against him.他对新

  闻界的见地是,记者们不是支持他,就是反对他。(顺译法)

  Water and food is what the people in the area are badly needed.该地域 的人们最需求的是

  水和食品。(逆译法)

  同位语从句翻译法

  1)补译法:加上一些词,如“即”,“以为”,或者以冒号、破折号分开处置。

  Eg: That racism continues to prevail is indicated by the fact that we, intentionally or not, chose three white men to be the first men associated with the moon.种族主 义继续占上风可有事实阐明:我们有 意无意选择了三位白种人作为首批登陆者。

  2)先译法:先翻译从句,即从句前置。

  Eg:

  This is a universally accepted principle of international law that the territory sovereignty doesn’t admit of infringement.一个国 度的领土不容进犯,这是国 际法中尽人皆知的原则。

  Despite the fact that comets are probably the most numerous astronomical bodies in the solar system aside from small meteor fragments and the asteroids, they are largely a mystery.在太阳 系中除小片流星和小行星外,彗星大 约是数量最多的天体了,虽然如此,它们仍 旧根本上是神秘莫测的。

  3)顺译法:依照原文次第翻译。

  Eg:  As an obedient son, I had to accept my parents’decision that I was to be a doctor, though the prospect interested me not at all.作为一个孝敬的儿子,我承受父母的决议,去当大夫,固然我 对这样的出路毫无兴味。

 

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